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Microbes II

QuestionAnswer
What is a biofilm? Group of the same or different microorganisms adhering to a surface and each other
Name four reasons microbes form biofilms: Protection, fixes bacteria in nutrient rich locations, allow bacteria to live closely associated, strength in numbers!
What two things does a biofilm protect bacteria against? physical forces and predators
What is an ecosystem? The interaction of environment and organisms as a functional unit
What is ecology? the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environments
What is soil composed of? (5) Inorganic mineral matter, air, water, organic matter, and living organisms
What is microbial ecology? study of microorganisms in their environment
Where do microbes in soil grow? On soil particles and on plant roots
What is the Rhizosphere? the soil that surrounds plant roots
Why are microbes so important for soil? They are important for soil fertility
Name the three layers of soil in descending order: Layer of undecomposed plant material, surface soil, subsoil
Which layer of soil has the most microbial activity? Middle level - surface soil
Who is Selman Waksman? An undergraduate student who 100 years ago counted how many bacteria where in the soil
What is the main task of microbes in the soil? decomposers
What is composting? a natural microbial process where microbes decompose organic materials into a dark, crumbly, earthy smelling soil conditioner
How can composting save money? reduces fertilizer and water use
How is composting good for the environment? reduces volume of garbage
Does composting increase or decrease the temperature? increase
Why is it important to turn your compost pile? Composting is an aerobic process
What is the built environment? includes all the physical parts of where we live and work
What is an indoor ecosystem? The microbial ecology of buildings
What is the human microbiome? the collective sum of all microbes, bacteria archaea, fungi, other eukaryotics, and viruses living on humans
Why did scientists expect to find more genes when mapping the human genome? because the rest of the excess genetic material was from the human microbiome
Which is more likely to resemble each other: the microbial population of your mouth and your vagina or your mouth and someone else's mouth? mouth and mouth
How can people have different populations of microbes? the microbial metabolic functions matter more than the species of the microbes providing them
When does the microbiome first originate? usually after birth but microbes have been found in utero
why are cesarean babies more susceptible to disease? They do not receive the same microbes as babies that exit the birth canal
Why does the diversity of vaginal bacteria change in the first semester of pregnancy? lactobacillus johnsonii becomes the dominant species because this microbe will aid the baby in the digestion of milk
What is eradication? reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero
Why is it more dangerous to be isolated from microbes? It raises the risk of infection and disease because a diverse microbiota in early life is required to have a proper immune system
What is a probiotic? a live microorganism that may confer a health benefit
What is a prebiotic? a non-digestible food ingredient that promotes the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the intestines
What is a synbiotic? nutritional supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics
Who was Elie Metchnikoff? The first person to observe the positive role of bacteria in the gut
When was the term "probiotics" first used? 1953 - to contrast antibiotics
What is an antibiotic? chemical substance produced by microorganisms and have the capacity to inhibit the growth and destroy other microorganisms
What are antibodies? blood proteins produced in response to a foreign substance they specifically recognize and mark for destruction
What is a dietary supplement? a product intended for ingestion that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to provide nutritional value (not FDA approved)
Is there clinal evidence that probiotics work? no
What is a chemostat? a bioreactor where organisms are constantly fed and some culture liquid is removed to keep volume constant under controlled conditions
What is a huge problem in dietary supplement testing? contamination
How can you deliver a diverse population of gut microbes straight to the gut? fecal transplant
What is sterilization? the killing or removing of all viable organisms
What is decontamination? the treatment of an object to make it safe to handle
What is disinfection? removal of pathogens - not necessarily all microorganisms
What is antisepsis? removal or inhibition of microorganisms on body surface/ living tisse
What is heat sterilization? a widely used method to sterilize media and equipment
What is pasteurization? reduces the microbial load in heat sensitive liquids - does not kill all microbes
What kind of radiation can reduce or eliminate microbes? gamma rays
What is the most important group of antibiotics? B-Lactam
What is the problem with antiviral drugs? viruses only use host machinery (ribosomes) so it is difficult to target viruses only
What is the problem with antifungal drugs? fungi are eukaryotes like us so they are hard to target
What do fungi cells have that human cells don't? a cell wall
What is the problem with antimicrobial drugs? some organisms are naturally resistant to a given antimicrobial
What is epidemiology? branch of medicine dealing with the control of diseases and other factors relating to health
What is a host? any organism harboring a pathogen
what is a pathogen? organisms living on or in the host causing disease
What is disease? damage or injury to the host caused by a pathogenic microbe
What is infectious disease? disease caused by a pathogenic microbe
What is pathogenicity? the ability of a pathogen to inflict damage on the host
What is virulence? measure of pathogenicity; the ability of a pathogen to cause disease
What is infection? situation in which a microbe is established and growing in a host
What is microbial/ bacterial pathogenesis? The manner of development of a disease
What is specific adherence? surface molecules on a pathogen bind specifically to complementary surface receptors on cells of certain host tissues
What is non-specific adherence? bacterial adherence is facilitated by a slime layer or capsule
Can pathogens form biofilms? yes
What are invasins? virulence factors, bacteria proteins that aid in invasion and promote colonization
Why do invasins prevent blood from clotting? protects pathogen from host immune response
What is bacteremia? presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
What is septicemia? bloodborne systematic infection
What is toxicity? the ability to cause disease by means of a toxin that inhibits or kills host cells
What is a toxin? a microbial substance able to cause damage to the host
What is an exotoxin? proteins released from the pathogen cell as it grows; leaves the site of the initial infection
What is an endotoxin? endotoxins are portions of the outer membrane of cell wall released when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart
What is susceptibility? lack of resistance to a disease
What is immunity? ability to ward off diseases
What is innate immunity? defense against any pathogen
What is adaptive immunity? immunity or resistance to a specific pathogen
What is a compromised host? one or more resistance mechanisms are inactive and so the probability of infection is increased
What is the first line of defense? Physical and chemical barriers
What is the second line of defense? Inflammatory respinse, antiviral proteins, antibacterial proteins in the blood
What is the third line of defense? The adaptive immune system is a pathogen specific, systemic and has memory
What is humoral/antibody immunity? b-cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them
What are antigens? substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response
What are antibodies? proteins produced by the immune system in response to an antigen . antibodies inactivate antigens and tag them for destruction
What is cellular or cell-mediated immunity? t-cells recognize and destroy cells infected with a pathogen
What are the two types of adaptive immunity? naturally acquired active immunity and artificially acquired active immunity (vaccinations)
What are the two things that vaccines do? spare us the symptoms of diseases and use weakened antigens to stimulate an immune response
What are autoimmune diseases? the loss of the immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself. The body produces antibodies that destroy its own tissues.
Who is Robert Koch? A scientist who in 1876 proved that specific microbes cause specific diseases
What are the Koch postulates? the suspected pathogen must be present in all cause of the disease and be absent from healthy animals
What are infectious diseases? a clinically evident illness resulting from the infection, presence, and growth of a pathogen in a host. Some infections do not cause diseases
What are communicable diseases? a disease that is spread from one host to another
What is a contagious disease? a disease that is easily spread from from one host to another
What is a non-communicable disease? a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
What is the morality of a disease? the incidence of death in a population from the disease
What is the morbidity of a disease? The incidence of disease including fatal and nonfatal diseases
What is the incidence of a disease? the number of new cases of the disease in a given period of time
What is the prevalence of a disease? The total number of new and existing cases in a population in a given time
What is the outbreak of a disease? occurs when a number of cases of a disease are reported in a short period of time
What is an endemic disease? constantly present in a population usually at low incidences
What is an epidemic? occurs in large numbers of people in a population at the same time
What is the difference between a host-to-host transfer and a common source transfer? Host-to-host is when people spread the viruses between them and common source is when it is spread through food and water
What is a pandemic? widespread - usually world wide
What is an emerging disease? an infectious disease that has appeared in a population for the first time or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographical range
How does the modern world encourage the transfer of viruses? modern transportation, expanding human settlement, and public health failure?
What is an infection? the organisms invades and colonizes the host
What is the incubation period? the time between infection and onset of symptoms
What are symptoms? changes from normal noticed by the patient that indicate the presence of disease
What is the acute period? The disease at the height
What is the decline period? When the disease symptoms are subsiding
What is the convalescent period? the patient retains strength and returns to the normal mode of transmission
What is direct host-to-host transmission? passed from person to person
What is indirect host-to-host transmission? transmission is facilitated by living or nonliving facilitator
What are living agents called? vectors
What are nonliving agents called? fomites
What are the two ways that arthropods spread pathogens? mechanical transmission and biological transmission (pathogens replicate in a living agent)
What is zoonosis? a disease that primarily infects animals and is occasionally transmitted to humans
What is a reservoir? sites (animate or inanimate) in which infectious agents remain viable and from which infection of individuals can occur
What is a carrier? a pathogen infected individual showing no signs of clinical disease. Carriers are potential sources of infection and are reservoirs
What is a HAI A hospital associated infection
How are HAI acquired? as a result of a hospital stay
Created by: emmasue12