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Unit 10-Evolution

What is the term for the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts were probably prokaryotes that were engulfed in other prokaryotes in order to begin the process of making more complex organisms called eukaryotes? endosymbiosis or endosymbiont theory
List the 5 evolutionary forces: mutation, gene flow, nonrandom mating, genetic drift, natural selection
In this equation: p2 + 2pq + q2 what does each represent? p2 = homozygous dominant 2pq = heterozygous q2 = homozygous recessive
Who was the scientist that used decaying meat to show that maggots had to come from adult flies and not the meat – to refute spontaneous generation? Redi
What are the basic four categories/tools that scientists use to determine if evolution occurred? fossils, biochemical similarities, anatomy, embryology
What are the 3 patterns of speciation/evolution? adaptive radiation(divergent evolution), convergent evolution, coevolution
What are the two theories of the rate of evolution? gradualism and punctuated equilibrium
What is the general term for when there is a change in the frequency of an allele in a population by a chance event? genetic drift
Who was the scientist who believed evolution occurred by use or disuse of physical features? Lamarck
What is any preserved evidence of an organism? fossil
In looking at anatomy: body parts in different species that are similar in function but not structure are what type? analogous structures
What is the term for when unrelated species evolve similar traits, but did not come from a common ancestor, but because their habitats were similar. Example: the long snout of anteaters and other similar organisms convergent evolution
A form of genetic drift that is when a population declines and then rebounds (but may not have the same percentage of alleles as original population) bottleneck effect
How do we get variations in a population? mutations and recombination of alleles by sexual reproduction
Who were the scientists that proved that inorganic materials with electricity can produce organic molecules. Miller and Urey
What is the term when we see a change in the frequency of a trait based upon the ability to attract a mate? sexual selection
What is the term for blending into the environment? camouflage
What are the type of prokaryotes that produced oxygen through photosynthesis called? cyanobacteria
Can the environment cause a mutation? no
What rate of evolution theory is when there are periods of rapid change in species, separated by periods of little or no change. punctuated equilibrium
If two organisms are examined and they have very few differences in a protein, what is thought about the ancestor? that they have a more common ancestor
When was the Earth formed? 4.6 billion years ago
What is the term for when migration causes genetic change in a population? gene flow
What is the first thing that has to be in a population before evolution can begin? variation in the population
What is the term for a pattern of evolution where one species affects the evolution of another species. Example: pollinators and plants coevolution
What type of selection occurs when the average trait is selected for? stabilizing selection
Give description about the industrial melanism which shows evolution: light and dark moth; dark moths from a mutation; light more in number, then factories produce pollution, changing trees darker; therefore dark moths could survive more due to camouflage
True or False: do many organisms have more organisms that can survive? True
What is the term for the amount of time it takes for half of the original isotope to decay? half-life
What theory of how we have such a diversity of organisms existed before evolution by natural selection? divine creation
Reproductive isolation may occur because of geographic and ____________ conditions. For example, if they have two different mating calls. behavioral
What is the term for looking at structures that develop at different rates or at different stages? embryology
What is the term for using the decaying of radioactive isotopes to measure the age of a rock? radiometric dating
A form of genetic drift that is when a small population settles into another location founder effect
What is the term for when one species gives rise to many species in response to a new habitat. Example: finches adaptive radiation (divergent evolution)
Natural selection acts upon: genotype or phenotype phenotype
In looking at anatomy: similar structures with similar function is what type? homologous structure
What rate of evolution theory is when there is a gradual change over a long period of time. gradualism
What is the term for layers of rock? strata
What are the 4 principles of evolution by natural selection? variation, inheritance, selection, time
What is the term for resembling other species to survive? mimicry
In looking at anatomy: structures that have lost most or all of their previous function (and may be reduced in size) are what type? vestigial structure
What type of selection occurs when both outlier(extreme) traits is selected for and the average is not? disruptive selection
What is the term for when individuals prefer to mate with others that live nearby of the same type? nonrandom mating
What are the two organelles involved in endosymbiotic theory, particularly because they have their own DNA? chloroplasts, mitochondria
What is the term for that only living organisms can produce living organisms? biogenesis
What type of selection occurs when one of the outlier(extreme) traits is selected for? directional selection
What is the term for the idea that nonliving organisms give rise to living organisms spontaneous generation
What type of isolation can produce new species because they are separated by physical barriers and therefore cannot reproduce with each other geographic isolation
What is the term for prokaryotes that live in hostile or extreme environments? archaebacteria
What are some evidences of evolution? industrial melanism-moths, antibiotic resistance, beaks of finches, other adaptations
What were the first type of cells produced? prokaryotes
Who was the scientist that used broth in a specialized flask to absolutely disprove spontaneous generation? Pasteur
Created by: thompsondk
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