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Micro Innate Immun

Micro106 - Innate Immunity

Serum Serum is the fluid part of blood, it contains minerals, salts proteins. Plasma is serum that contains clotting agents
RBC Also known as erythrocytes – carry oxygen, lack a nucleus
Platelets Important component in blood clotting, lack a nucleus
WBC Leukocytes – immunity
Granulocytes Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils & mast cells
Agranulocytes Monocytes & macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells
Neutrophils Polymorphonuclear phagocytes – PMNs
Monocytes Phagocytes that mature into macrophages in tissues. Also secrete cytokine
Lymphocytes Move to the lymph after maturation
B & T lymphocytes Involved in acquired immunity
Dendritic cells Found in the skin & other portals of entry. Branched cells involved in acquired immunity, function as scouts, engulf material & bring it to cells of adaptive immunity
Lymph Clear fluid surrounding tissue cells & filling intercellular spaces
Lymphatic system Collection of tissues & organs that bring lymphocytes in contact with antigens
Primary lymph organs & tissues Thymus & bone marrow
Secondary lymph tissues Spleen – contains cells that monitor & fight infection Lymph nodes – contain phagocytes & lymphocytes, Tonsils, adenoids & appendix
Innate immunity or nonspecific resistance Genetically encoded to recognize common pathogenic features & foreign substances
Cytokines Chemical signals between cells – initiates acquired immunity – cytokines are proteins that bind to receptors of other cells
Acquired immunity or specific resistance Involves production of lymphocytes & antibodies specific to the pathogen
Mechanical barriers Skin & mucous membranes
Skin as a barrier Covers majority of surface, difficult to penetrate, dry, salty environment, microbes are shed with outer layers of skin
Mucous membranes Line digestive, respiratory & genitourinary tracts, mucus traps microbes, cilia expel microbes
Chemical barriers pH, defensins, lysozomes, interferons
pH Specific pH levels in body resist infection – lactobacilli in vagina & low pH of stomach – acid environments
Defensisn Antimicrobial peptides found in body secretions – damages membranes in microbes
Lysozyme Enzyme found in tears, sweat & saliva – lyses gram positive bacteria by degrading peptidoglycan
Interferons Protein cytokines that trigger macrophage activation, interfere with RNA viruses
Normal microbiota as barrier Microorganisms found growing on body surfaces of healthy individuals, protect by competitive exclusion, out compete pathogens for nutrients & attachment sites
Phagocytosis The capture & digestion of foreign particles
Phagocytes Specialized cells that engulf & digest microbes
Phagosome Structure that hold microbes, phagosome is acidified, kills or inactivates the pathogen
Phagolysosome Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes – enzymes & reactive oxygen species kill & digest the pathogen
Inflammation Inflammation is initiated by microbial invasion or tissue damage
Macrophages Macrophages secrete cytokines – triggers vasodilatation and capillary permeability – increases blood flow & plasma leaks from capillaries
Edema Fluid flows into injured tissue
Diapedesis More phagocytes migrate between capillary cells
Mast cells Secrete histamines which increase vasodilatation
Fibrin clots Prevent spread of pathogens
Abscess formation Bacteria & dying neutrophils
Low to moderate fever Supports the immune system, inhibits rapid microbial growth, encourages tissue repair, helps with phagocytosis
Pyrogens Pyrogens are a cytokines produced by some leukocytes, affect the hypothalamus causing elevated body temp
Complement Complement is a series of normally inactive proteins that circulate in the bloodstream – become activated in the presence of microbes – initiates cascade of reactions
Classical pathway Antibody-microbe complexes activate complement proteins that activate C3 convertase that leads to inflammation
Alternative pathway The complement protein C3 binds to the pathogen cell surface to activate C3 convertase that leads to – leads to opsonization
Pathogen associated molecular patterns PAMPs Helps the innate immune system recognize danger signs on pathogens
Pathogen danger signs LPS layer of gram negative cell walls, peptidoglycan, flagella
Toll like receptors TLRs Signaling receptors – mediate a specific response to PAMPs – stimulate secretion of cytokines
Created by: jrb265