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SHS Adv Biology 1

Cell Transport Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Passive transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Osmosis The diffusion of water
Isotonic A solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside the cell
Facilitated diffusion The transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
Endocytosis The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
Sodium-Potassium Pump A carrier protein that used ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
Diffusion The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
Concentration gradiant A difference in the concentration of a s substance across a distance
Exocytosis The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and expels it.
Hypotonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
Hypertonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cells
Contractile Vacuole An organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure
Plasmolysis The contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane
Cytolysis The bursting of a cell
Carrier protein A protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
Ion channel A complex of protein molecules in a cell membrane that form a pore through which ions can pass
Active transport The movement of chemical substances across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
Pinocytosis A method of active transport across the cell membrane in which the cell takes in extracellular fluids
Created by: cpolumbo