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Digestive System

Levels of body organization from smallest to largest cell, tissue, organ, body system
smooth muscle contractions that push food through digestive system peristalsis
where do proteins begin digestion? stomach (know where this is on a picture)
what ENZYME that digests protein in the stomach? pepsin
which CHEMICAL helps pepsin in the stomach? hydrochloric acid (HCl)
pepsin + hydrocloric acid (HCl) are called _________. gastric juices
what substances do pass through cell membranes? water and sugar
What substances do NOT pass through cell membranes? starch does not and that is why it has to be broken down by amylase
Enzyme in saliva (found in the mouth) turns starch into sugar amylase
when a substance moves from an area of high concentration to low concentration Diffusion, also called passive transport (remember like a tea bag in hot water)
ring of muscle that opens and closes to allow food to go from one organ to another in the digestive system sphincter
flap of tissue that covers windpipe when you swallow epiglottis
Where does extra water move back into the bloodstream? Large intestine absorbs water back into your cells. *know where this is on a picture
Diarrhea will happen if peristalsis is happening too quickly in this organ? large intestine because it would not have time to absorb water
Which organ 1. digest fat (mechanically and chemically) 2. absorbs nutrients 3. where most chemical digestion takes place? small intestine *know where this is on a picture
where is waste stored? rectum *know where this is on a picture
which organ has no know function? appendix *know where this is on a picture
what substance protects and "coats" the digestive organs? mucus
list organs of digestive tract in order mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
chewed up food mixed with saliva and before it is swallowed is called _______________. a bolus
what indicator is used to test for starch? lugols solution postive-black/purple negative-orange/brown
what indicator is used to test for sugar? benedicts solution positive-any color change (red, orange, yellow, green) Negative-stays blue
What are ulcers? holes in the STOMACH lining because there is not enough mucus to protect the stomach from acidic content
the tearing, grinding, or mixing of food in the digestive tract. example- TEETH chewing mechanical digestion
the breaking down of food in the digestive tract by gastric juices or enzymes chemical digestion
Why are starches important? example of carbohydrates main source of fuel for your body cells. rice and grains
thick, creamy liquid of partially digest food in the STOMACH chyme
What kind of digestion happens in the stomach? both mechanical (muscle churning) and chemical (gastric juices)
substance that breaks down fat droplets mechanically bile
takes ENERGY (ATP) to move nutrients through the cell membrane active transport
folds of small intestine have tiny projections called villi (remember ticket model we made)
helps prevent constipation fiber (grains, fruit) and water
supplies pancreatic juice pancreas *know where this is on a picture
receives bile and pancreatic juice duodenum (first part of SMALL INTESTINE) *know where this is on a picture
produces bile liver *know where this is on a picture
stores bile gall bladder
a balanced plate needs... protein, fruit, vegetable, dairy, and starch (carbohydrate)
Created by: solgarcia