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Biology 1152

Ch. 44, Osmoregulation & Excretion

What does not happen during excretion? no filtration
What organ do vertebrates have for osmoregulation and excretion? kidneys
How does the anatomy work? Urine passed into ureter that leads to urinary bladder. -emptied through urethra.
What is the outer region of kidneys called? What's the inner? Cortex, medulla
What are nephrons? Individual units of kidneys, coiled up.
What are the 2 types of nephrons? cortical nephrons juxtamedullary nephorns.
Where does the filtration of blood occur? glomerulus.
What does Bowmans capsule do? surround glomerulus.
How will filtrate travel? proximal tubule-down&up loop of henle-through distal tubule-> drain through collecting duct.
Whats step 1 in filtration? blood pressure forces stuff out of glomerulus in Bowmans capsule.
Step 2&3 in reabsorbtion and secretion? filtrate enters proximal tubule; Na+ pumped out.
4 steps of excretion? 1. filtration- water, amino acids etc, filtered out. 2. reabsorbtion-not wasted things are reabsorbed. 3. secretion- access is added to filtrate. 4. excretion- filtrate is expelled from body.
What invertebrates have excretory systems? protonephridia in plathyhelmentes.
What excretory system is in mollusca? metanephridia, ciliated opening drains fluid from coelom.
What do insects produce? malphigian tubule- connect excretory system to tigestive tract.
What is urine concentration controlled by? hormones.
What does Aldosterone cause? distal tubules to release more salt than H2O.
What is not reduntant? ADH& RAAS
Where is urethra in males? Penis
Where is urethra in females? has it's own opening.
What do kidneys spend more off than most organs? energy
What are the steps once filtrate enters loop of Henle and does down? environment gets progressively more hyperosmotic. -epithelial walls are permeable to H2O but not salts. -H2O leaves filtrate through aquaporin channels.
What happens on ascending limb in loop of henle? environment gets progressively more hypoosmotic. -walls are permeable to salt but not H2O. - salt diffuses. -filtrate become more diluted.
What happens in the situal tubule? a lot of selective transport.
What happens in collecting duct? H2O is absorbed, but how much depends on hormones.
What happens in step 4, excretion? the renal pelvis collects urine -urine flows through ureters-> urinary bladder-urethra.
What are nephron types? juxtameduallary (go deeper in medulla)
When blood pressure drops, cells release? ranin, interacts with angiotensin, decreasing blood flow.
What does 2nd hormone system monitor? What is used? blood pressure, aldosterone (RAAS)
What happens if blood osmolarity drops? less ADH is release, more dilute urine.
Where do we find increased numbers of aquaporin channels? collecting ducts of nephrons.
What happens if osmolarity of blood rises? ADH is released.
What's produced in the hypothalamus? anit-diuretic hormone (ADH).
What are the 3 types of nitrogen waste from ammonia? 1. ammonia - cheap, but very toxic (needs lots H2O) aquatic animals. 2. Urea - less cheap& less toxic (amphibians, mammals) 3. Uric acid - least cheap, not toxic (birds&reptiles)
In what chemical form is the waste? ammonia (NH3)
What do animals produce? nitrogenous waste, from breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids.
What does osmoregulation cost a lot of? What is the specialized tissue called? energy expensive& transport epithelia
What 2 ways can animals loose H2O? Urine&feces, evaporation across skin
What are 3 ways land animals gain water? drinking, eating, byproduct of mentabolism.
What risk to terrestrial animals face? dehydration.
What did the water bear develop? anhydrobiosis. he can loose 98% of water.
What problem do fresh water fish have? their tissues are hyperosmotic to water (take in a LOT of H2O)
What's special about sharks? their tissue stores high amounts of urea. TMAO which protects against urea.
What is an osmoregulator? maintainging an osmolarity different than seawater.
What is a stenhaline environment? When the animal lives in either salt or fresh water.
What does a euryhaline environment mean? Where fresh and saltwater meets.
What do you call an animal that keeps internal osmolarity the same as environment? Osmoconformers.
An equal amouint of solutes? isoosmatic.
Few solutes? hypoosmotic.
many solutes? hyperosmotic.
Where does H2O want to move during osmosis? towards area of higher osmolarity.
systems for what are compled to osmoregulation? systems for excretion.
What is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis? osmoregulation.
What balance do metabolic reactions require? water and ions.
Created by: Turtleking