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Biology 1152

Chapter. 45, Endocrine functions

QuestionAnswer
What is an important factor in homeostasis? Blood Ca 2+
What is vital for maintaining tissue of uterus? Progesterone
What stimulates sensory neuron which sends an electrical message to a neurosecretory cell? sudleling
What is released because of Oxytocin? positive feedback
What happens during a negative feedback in pancreas? pH raised by HCO 3-, shutting off secretin secretion
What does curtisal do? Stimulates breakdown of muscle proteins and convert it to glucose.
What helps the body respond to stress? adrenal glands
What hormone has tropic and non tropic effects? Growth Hormones (GH)
How do sex hormone cascades run? GnRH (Hypothalamus)---> FSH,LH (anterior pituitary) ----> sex hormones (gonads)
What does aldosterone do? stimulates reabsorbtion of salt&water by kidneys.
What does medulla release? epinephrine& nonepinephrine
What does the pineal gland do? secretes melatonin in response to light cues in hypothalamus.
What do ADH&oxytocin do? ADH= increases H2O for collecting ducts in kidneys. Oxytocin= causes milk secretion.
What happens if Ca 2+ drops too low? parathroid glands release PTH.
What is the job of 2 anatagonistic hormones? to regulate -> Insulin: body cells absorb glucose from blood. Glycagon: causes liver cells to release sugar into blood.
Where is insulin&glycogen produced? pancreas.
What causes diabetes mellitus? the inability to produce insulin/low cell response to insulin.
What is Type I-diabetes? an autoimmune disorder. T-cells destroy pancreatic B-cells. Insulin must be injected several times a day.
What's wrong with Type II-diabetes? Insulin is produced, but target cells do not respond. 90% of cases.
What do we have immediately under the hypothalamus? pituitary gland.
What 2 extensions do we have on the pituitary gland? posterior portion: extension of hypothalamus anterior portion: synthesizes tropic hormones
What 2 chemicals are stored in the pituitary gland? ADH&Oxytocin
What do some cells release in the blood stream? neurotransmitters.
What travels outside the body to another individual? Pheromones(smells)
Where is endocrine tissue formed? endocrine glands.
What are 3 major hormones? 1. Polypeptides-H2O soluble 2. Steroids- lipid soluble 3. Amnies- most H2O soluble
What can cross cell membrane? Lipid soluble hormones
What does a low Ph in duodenum stimulate? secretin.
What is a synapse? Nerve cells connect to cells at a space.
What chemical signals does the endocrine system rely on? Hormones.
Where does endocrine system release hormones in? blood stream.
What happens during paracrine signaling? short lived molecules activate near by cells.
What happens during autocrine signaling? cells release molecules which stimulate themselves.
How do nerve cells transmit messages? through synaptic signaling.
What is one of the messaging systems in the animal body? the endocrine system.
How high should the glucose ratio in humans be? 70-110mg/100mL
What is a non-tropic hormone? proactin.
What portion of our brain helps regulate endocrine system? hypothalamus.
Where are hormones often released in? hormone cascades.
What are symptoms of diabetes? High blood sugar.
What response does medulla control? flight or fight
Where are androgens/testosterone produced? testes.
What's produced by the ovaries? estrogens.
What do nerve cells release? neurotransmitters.
What are the 2 Types of diabetes? Type I & Type II
What can't cross the membrane? H2O solubles
What are tropic hormones controlled by? GnRH of hypothalamus.
What happens if blood Ca 2+ is too high? thyroid gland releases calacitonin.
How does ACTH stimulate release of steroids? by adrenal glands.
How does the hypothalamus control anterior pituitary? by secreting, releasing or stimulating hormones.
Created by: Turtleking