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Vertebrate Zoology

Testudines (Turtles)

QuestionAnswer
Location of Turtles Everywhere but Antarctica
Two Lineages of Turtles Cryptodira (can retract head) and Pleurodira (can't retract head)
Skulls of Turtles Anapsid (no hole behind the eye) in contract to mammals/synapsids (one hole behind the eye) and reptiles/diapsids (two holes behind the eyes); First thought to diverge before holes, not the evolution of no holes happened independently
Shells of Turtles Carapace dorsal shield with fused ribs and dermal bone sheets; Plastron ventral bony plate; Keratinized epidermal scutes to strengthen suture zones on bony plates; Heavy, lack mobility, no costal pump because ribs can't move
Respiration of Turtles Serratus/Abdominal Oblique contraction gives more space for lungs for inhalation; Transverse Abdominis/Pectoralis contractions gives less space for lungs for exhalation; 2 times the energy exerted; Low energy levels, body temp, and MR
Body Temperature Regulation or Turtles Basking; Muscle contractions; Digestion and nutrients; Body growth; Egg production; Vitamin D activation; In range of cool down area for optimal temperature; Bigger bodies take longer to heat up/cool down
Social Interactions of Turtles Can be very social, with complex mating rituals
Reproduction of Turtles Oviparous with no parental care; Eggs must be moist; Temperature dependent sex determination
Created by: LionsandGiants