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Earthquakes

TermDefinition
Earthquake The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.
Stress A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
Shearing A type of stress that can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change its shape.
Tension A stress force that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
Compression A stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
Deformation Any change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust.
Fault A break in Earth's crust where slabs of crust slip past each other (occur along plate boundaries).
Strike-slip fault A type of fault, caused by shearing, where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down movement.
Normal fault A type of fault, caused by tension, where the fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below the fault.
Hanging wall The half of the fault that lies above.
Footwall The half of the fault that lies below.
Reverse fault A type of fault, caused by compression, where the blocks move in opposite directions.
Fault-block mountain A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock.
Folds Bends in rock that form when compression shortens and thickens part of Earth's crust.
Anticline A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch.
Syncline A fold in rock that bends downward in the middle to form a bowl.
Plateau A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
Focus The point beneath Earth's surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake.
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus.
P waves (Primary waves) Earthquake waves that compress and expand the ground like an accordion-cause buildings to contract and expand.
S waves (Secondary waves) Earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side as well as up and down- shake structures violently.
Surface waves Earthquake waves that move more slowly than P and S waves, but produce the most severe ground movements.
Seismograph A device that records the ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through the Earth.
Magnitude A measurement of earthquake strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.
Mercalli scale A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause.
Richter scale A rating of the size of seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph.
Liquefacation The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud.
Aftershock An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area.
Tsunami A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
Base-isolated building A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake.
Created by: savannah749
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