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Carnivora

Order Carnivora

QuestionAnswer
Carnivora general characteristics defining: carnassial teeth (most pronounced predaceous carnivores, reduced in omnivores>ursids, procyonids), 3/3 incisors, 3/2 sea otter, canines large conical, cheek teeth vary: 4/4P, 2/3M long faced, 2/2P, 1/1M some cats and short faced
Carnivora general characteristics usually heavy/strong face muscles, C-shaped mandibular fossa (restrict movement 1 plane), large brain-case, morphology: cursorial (digitigrade, some plantigrade), most ancestral 5 digits, clavicle reduced/lost, baculum most, anal sacs/scent glands
Suborders Feliformia: catlike and 6F, tympanic/endotympanic bones in auditory bullae, Caniformia: doglike and 9F, tympanic bone mainly in auditory bullae, also carotid circulation differences
Suborder Feliformia, Family: Felidae (14,40), worldwide not antarctica, australia, madagascar, cheetah 60mph, members Panthera can roar, most proficient specialized meat-eaters: short rostrum, large orbits, rotate paws, pelage patterns, retractile claws not cheetah, good carnassial
Feliformia, Family: Herpestidae (14,33), mongooses, old world, intro to Hawaii and Caribbean, insectivorous, long postorbital process, most 5 toes, digi>semi plantigrade, anal scent glands>carboxylic acid, facial scent glands, largely diurnal, some use tools
Feliformia, Family: Eupleridae (7,8), malagasy mongooses, madagascar, includes malagasy civet, fossa, 7 spp recently listed threatened
Feliformia, Family: Viverridae (15, 35), civets, genets, old world primarily tropical temperate, mostly carnivorous, semi-arboreal, nocturnal ambush, moderate long rostrum, morphology/function diverse: palm civets omnivorous>frugivorous, otter civets semi aquatic, all retractile claws
Feliformia, Family: Nandiniidae (1,1), African palm civet, central africa, forested habitat, herbivorous, some insects, pets
Feliformia, Family: Hyaenidae (3,4), hyenas, old world, specialized for carrion feeding, heavy build, weigh up to 80kg, sloped silouhette, digitigrade 4 toes, odd genitalia and dimorphism: females larger, female have male like external genitalia (enlarged clitoris, vulva fused)
more Hyaenidae spotted hyena females higher testosterone than males, spotted clans up to 80 individuals, territories greater than 30km^2, aardwolf termite feeder, weak dentition, attracted to mounds by sounds (large auditory bullae), raise hair when scared
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Canidae (13,35), worldwide, wide range habitat, broad adapted carnivores: long rostrum, near complete dental formula (3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3), long strong canine, post carnassial teeth>more flexible diet, lanky good runners, good endurance
more family Canidae diverse diet: carnivore/omnivore, opportunistic, hunt strategy linked to body size/prey size: solitary vs pack
wolf taxonomy controversial Canis lupus: grey wolf old world origin, Canis lycaon: eastern wolf new world origin, readily hybridize: UP hybrid zone
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Mustelidae (22,59) weasels, badgers, otter, wolverine, world wide, fishers reintroduced to Ottawa National Forest control porcupines, small, long body/short limb, long brain case, short rostrum, well developed carnassials, pentadactyl, well developed anal glands
more Mustelidae info some plantigrade some digitigrade, several species kill larger prey than them, unique reproductive cycle: all prolong copulation to induce ovulation and many delay implantation, conservation/economics: fur bearing species
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Mephitidae (4,12) skunk/ stink badger, Indonesia & W. Hemisphere, aposematic coloration (warning), well developed scent glands, omnivorous, relatively long rostrum compared to mustelids, largely nocturnal,
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Procyonidae (6, 14) racoons, ringtails, coatis, olingos, New world only, exhibit structural departure of carnivory: skull premolars well developed, limited shearing action of carnassial, carnivorous, omnivorous, frugivorous, good climbers, plantigrade/pentadactyl
more Procyonidae info manipulative front feet, long tail (prehensile in kinkajou), varied social behavior, popular game animal, rabies spread to humans (common east of Appalachian mountains), semi retractile claws
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Ursidae (5,8) bears, N.A, Eurasia, Malay Peninsula, SA, NE Africa, include giant panda, plantigrade/pentadactyl, strong forelimbs, Northern species go into winter dormancy, long rostrum, reduced premolars/diastema, large molars/ bunodont occlusal surfaces
more Ursidae info small orbits, omnivorous but varies (polar bears carnivorous, giant panda herbivorous), hunted for hides/fat/meat, persecution for livestock predation, habitat fragmentation
Suborder Caniformia, Family: Ailuridae red panda, monotypic, endemic to Himalayan Mtns, small (3-6kg), folivorous (bamboo) and some insects/fruit, IUCN vulnerable (high risk of extinction), habitat fragmentation
Pinnipedia (aquatic caniformia) pinnae small/absent, tail rudimentary/absent, limbs distal to elbow & knees exposed, clavicle absent, humerus/radius/ulna short & heavy build, pollex long (lead edge foreflipper), pelvic girdle reduced, fusiform body, nostrils voluntarily controlled
more pinnepedia info partially telescoped skulls, rostrum shortened, homodont dentition, 90-36000kg, diving adaptations: large lungs, respiratory tract rigid (cartilaginous bundles), large blood volume, redistribute blood so directed to heart/brain/major muscles
Pinnepedia, Order: Odobenidae walrus, up to 1270kg, nearly hairless, no external ears, hind flippers under body terrestrial motion, eat mollusks, tusks open rooted/no enamel used to break ice/hang on/defense, males 4X size females, hunted for meat/oil/ivory, gregarious, vocal, arctic
Pinnepedia, Order: Otariidae eared seals/sea lions, less specialized for aquatic life, hind limbs under body for land motion, propulsion from forelimbs, nails on 3 digits hind flippers, bodies furred, gregarious, vocal, piscivorous, California sea lions circus, hunted meat/hide/oil
Pinnepedia, Order: Phocidae N. hem above 30 degrees, S. hem below 50 degrees, no external ear, shortish foreflippers, furred, heavy fat layers, 80-450kg, 3600kg, most polygynous some monogomous
more Phocidae info deepes divers Weddel seal (1,000ft down), dives 20min usually recorded up to 82min, altered circulation during, overharvest: fur/food/oil, many commercially extinct 1960s, N. elephant seal once down to 20-100 indiv,
Created by: jebeard