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SBio DNA

QuestionAnswer
The cellular process that creates 2 identical double-stranded DNA molecules. DNA Replication
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA and RNA, both nucleic acids, are made up of monomers called _____________. nucleotides
Nucleotides are made up of these three parts. A phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen base.
What are the names of the four nitrogen bases found in DNA? Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)
Which DNA bases pair together? A with T, and C with G.
The enzyme that "unzips" the double helix in DNA Replication. DNA Helicase
Why is DNA called the double helix? DNA has 2 strands of nucleotides, and the strands are twisted (corkscrew-shaped).
The enzyme that attaches complementary bases to the template strands in DNA Replication. DNA Polymerase
What is being made during Protein Synthesis? Protein
Which two cellular processes are involved in Protein Synthesis? Transcription and Translation
Transcription makes a strand of __________ using DNA as the template. mRNA
Where does Transcription take place? the nucleus
What are the three differences between DNA and RNA? DNA is double-stranded (RNA single), DNA has the sugar deoxyribose (RNA ribose), DNA has the base Thymine (RNA Uracil).
The enzyme that "unzips" the double helix in Transcription. RNA Polymerase
The enzyme that attaches mRNA bases to a template strand of DNA in Transcription. RNA Polymerase
RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid
Where does Translation take place? on a ribosome (in the cytoplasm)
During Translation, mRNA is used to make _____________. Protein
The 3 base sequence of nucleotides on mRNA is called the _____________. codon
Amino acids are held together with by ____________ bonds. peptide
Protein Synthesis will be complete when a _________ codon is reached. stop
The scientist that used X-ray images to determine that DNA was helical (spiral) in shape. Rosalind Franklin
The two scientists that are credited with creating the first model of the double helix. James Watson & Francis Crick
DNA ---> RNA Transcription
RNA ---> Protein Translation
A change in the sequence of nucleotides (bases) in a segment of DNA. Mutation
A type of mutation that replaces one nucleotide (base) for another. Substitution
A type of mutation that adds in an extra nucleotide (base) to a sequence of DNA. Insertion
A type of mutation that removes a nucleotide (base) from a sequence of DNA. Deletion
DNA Technology that uses DNA fingerprints for crime scene investigation and paternity testing. Forensics
DNA Technology that creates cells OR organisms that are genetically identical to preexisting ones. Cloning
DNA Technology that set out to determine how many genes humans have AND what each one of those genes codes for. Human Genome Project
DNA Technology that deliberately alters the DNA of an organism. Genetic Engineering
DNA Technology in which a perfect organism or population is created by enforcing breeding (mating) restrictions. Eugenics
Created by: ballb