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ch. 15 + 16 vocab

vocabulary words on chapters 15 + 16

QuestionAnswer
evolution change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
theory well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
fossil preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
artificial selection selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
struggle for existence competition among members of a species for food, living space, and the other necessities of life
fitness ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
adaptation inherited characteristics that increases an organism’s chance of survival
survival of the fittest process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection
natural selection process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
descent with modification principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
common descent principle that all living things were derived from common ancestors
homologous structure structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissue
vestigial organ organ that serves no useful function in an organism
gene pool combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
relative frequency number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of times other alleles occur
single-gene trait trait controlled by a single gene that has two alleles
polygenic trait trait controlled by two or more genes
directional selection form of natural selection in which the entire curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
stabilizing selection form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals on either end
disruptive selection form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or other end of the curve
genetic drift random change in the allele frequencies that occur in small populations
founder effect change in the allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
Hardy-Weinberg principle principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequencies to change
genetic equilibrium situation in which allele frequencies remain constant
speciation formation of a new species
reproductive isolation separation of a species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
behavioral isolation form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have difference in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevents them from interbreeding
geographic isolation for of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic berries such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
temporal isolation form of reproductive isolation where two populations reproduce at different times
Created by: Tyl3r10959