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Bio Exam 3

Pomarico Bio 1002 Exam 3

Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the heart occurs in the ? Frog - they have a 3 chambered heart with only 1 ventricle where the mixing occurs.
The most important factor in the return of blood flow back to the heart is ? Skeletal Muscle contraction
The cardiac cycle is ? The synchronous contraction of the two atria followed by the contraction of the two ventricles
Epinephrine is given as treatment for shock victims because ? it increases heart rate and blood pressure
What is NOT a part of ALL circulatory systems? Hemocoel - an open region inside the body where internal organs are immersed directly in fluid.
What is the overriding main function of the vertebrate circulatory system? To transport substances - oxygen, nutrients, hormones, wastes, CO2.
Uncoordinated and irregular contractions of one of the chambers of the heart are referred to as? Fibrillations
What is the determining factor that stimulates erythropoietin (stimulates the production of RBCs) release from the kidney? Too little oxygen in the blood
What would happen if a person received a drug that acted as a thrombin (used in the blood clotting process to convert fibrinogen to fibrin) inhibitor? Their ability to produce blood clots would be inhibited
Megakaryocytes are responsible for the production of? Platelets
Animals have two major types of circulatory systems. ___ and ____? Open and Closed
Causes the red color in erythrocytes? hemoglobin
Carry blood away from the heart? Arteries
What is NOT an important function of the vertebrate circulatory system? Removal of waste products for excretion from the body
Which event initiates blood clotting? Contact with an irregular surface by platelets and other factors in plasma.
The sites of exchange of wastes, nutrients, gases, hormones between blood and the body cells are the? Capillaries
What produces systolic blood pressure? Contraction of the left ventricle
An AV valve prevents the backflow or leakage of blood from? a ventricle into an atrium
Heart Beat is initiated by signaling from the? SA Node
Fibrinogen is? a blood protein that is converted to fibrin to form a blood clot
The major criterion that determines rate of breathing is ? Blood carbon dioxide level
An advantage of gas exchange in aquatic habitats, as compared to terrestrial, is that? Keeping respiratory membranes moist is easy.
When you perform a strenuous exercise what happens? Respiratory muscles accessory to the diaphragm and rib muscles will contract to increase chest volume
Carbon monoxide poisoning kills by? Depriving cells of oxygen by competing with it for the hemoglobin in the rbc's
Take a huge breath while sitting up straight in your chair, and then do this again while slumped over. Compare the air volume entering the lungs in each situation. Why is there a difference? The chest and rib cage cannot be increased in size effectively when you are slumped over in a chair.
Compare the lungs to other respiratory structures such as gills and skin. What is the major advantage of the lungs? The lungs have more surface area, with accompanying greater respiratory membrane for gas exchange
Why is breathing so important? A fresh supply of oxygen must be constantly provided so that cells are able to metabolize glucose and to filter CO2
What features that facilitate diffusion of respiratory gases are shared b all animals with some type of respiratory system? The surface is exceedingly thin, moist, and very big
What stages in the process of respiratory gas exchange occurs by diffusion? (movement across small distances) Movement of gases across the surfaces of the lung and movement of gases between tissues of the body
What represents an evolutionary adaption that terrestrial animals have to aid in improving the efficiency of their respiratory systems? Development of complex internal lungs with massive amounts of surface area for gas exchange
Through what sequence of structures would a volume of air have to travel from the mouth into the lungs? Mouth -> pharynx -> Larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli
If humans did not have lungs, but instead their skin was thin and moist for gas exchange, they would struggle to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues. Why ? The skin would not provide a great enough surface area.
Why do many emphysema patients voluntarily contract muscles that help them increase their chest volume when they inhale? Emphysema patients have less respiratory surface area because of the damaged alveoli. To compensate, they must bring in larger volumes of air when they inhale.
With which other system do specialized respiratory systems most closely interface in exchanging gases between the cells and the environment? The circulatory system.
The gas exchange portion of the human respiratory system is the ? alveoli
_____ are a system of branching internal tubes that insects use to convey air to their body cells Tracheae
____ is dome shaped muscle that is found under the lungs Diaphragm
True or False: Both arteries and veins have a layer of muscle? False
How is most of the oxygen transported in the blood? Bound to hemoglobin
True or False: The concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the air(lungs) than in the capillaries.(body) False: Body cells have less oxygen than our lungs and have greater levels of CO2
A red blood cell is in an artery in the left arm. How many capillary beds must this cell pass through before it is returned to the left ventricle of the heart? Two
If a molecule of carbon dioxide released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all except ? Left Atrium
What is false concerning hemoglobin molecule? It is found only in humans.
Is this sequence correct? Right ventricle -> Pulmonary vein Incorrect
What does it mean if the blood pressure of a human is 110/80? The diastolic pressure is 80
The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot mostly consists of which protein? Fibrin
What occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? The volume of the chest cavity decreases
Why is it that vitamins A, D, E, and K can be toxic, but not C and B? Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body - C and B are water soluble and cannot go into our cells
Essential amino acids are those that? Are not synthesized in the body; they must be taken in with food
The major nutrient group used for quick energy production is? carbohydrates
Chyme is? the thickened food material after digestion in the stomach
____ is a tube that propels food from the mouth to the stomach esophagus
____ is the process by which food is pushed through the esophagus peristalsis
_____ is the human storage form of carbohydrate glycogen
The function of bile is? Mechanical breakdown of fats for better breakdown with lipase, a lipid digestive enzyme
What is it that "raises the temp of a gram of water by 1 degree Celsius"? calorie
What is the correct sequence of events that all digestive systems follow in the processing of food? ingestion -> mechanical breakdown -> chemical breakdown -> absorption -> elimination
What is NOT a function of the stomach? (water, alcohol, drugs) It is one of the primary sites for the absorption of digested protein fragments
What represents the places in the human body where starch is chemically digested? Mouth and Small intestine -> amalyse
What is the active form of an enzyme that chemically digests proteins in the stomach? Pepsin
The role of the liver in digestion of food is? To produce bile for the emulsification of fat
The hormone responsible for stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid by stomach cells is? Gastrin -> HCl acid -> Pepsinogen -> pepsin
Humans lack the digestive enzyme to attack chitin, a complex polysaccharide in the exoskeleton of lobster and crawfish. We also lack enzymes that degrade? Cellulose
What is NOT a characteristic of bile? It is produced in the gallbladder
True or false: During digestion the lipids, proteins, carbohydrates are directly absorbed False: nothing is directly absorbed
Most enzymatic hydrolysis (breakdown) of macromolecules in food occurs in the? small intestine
What is a correct statement about pepsin? It is activated by the action of hydrochloric acid on pepsinogen
The energy content of fats is? Is approx. two times that of carbs or protein
The primary function of the large intestine is ? the absorption of water
The ____ secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate solution into the small intestine to aid digestion pancreas
Created by: rayne95