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icsnihyap

Mosby Paramedic 3rd Ed. - Ch 17 Pharmacology Terms

QuestionAnswer
Absorption The process by which drug molecules are moved from the site of entry into the body into the general circulation.
Adrenergic Of or pertaining to the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system, which use epinephrine or epinephrine-like substances as neurotransmitters.
Agonists Drugs that combine with receptors and initiate the expected response.
Antagonists Agents designed to inhibit or counteract the effects of other drugs or undesired effects caused by normal or hyperactive physiological mechanisms.
Anticholinergic Of or pertaining to the blocking of acetylcholine receptors, resulting in inhibition of transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses.
Biological Half-life The time required to metabolize or eliminate half the total amount of a drug in the body.
Biotransformation The process by which a drug is converted chemically to a metabolite.
Chemical Name The exact designation of a chemical structure as determined by the rules of chemical nomenclature.
Cholinergic Of or pertaining to the effects produced by the parasympathetic nervous system or drugs that stimulate or antagonize the parasympathetic nervous system.
Contraindications Medical or physiological factors that make it harmful to administer a medication that would otherwise have a therapeutic effect.
Controlled Substance Any drug defined in the categories of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.
Cumulative action The effect that occurs when several doses of a drug are administered or when absorption occurs more quickly than removal by excretion or metabolism or both.
Distribution The transport of a drug through the bloodstream to various tissues of the body and ultimately to its site of action.
Drug Any substance take by mouth; Injected into a muscle, blood vessel, or cavity of the body; or applied topically to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
Drug interaction Modification of the effects of one drug by the previous or concurrent administration of another drug, thereby increasing or diminishing the pharmacological or physiological action of one or both drugs.
Drug Receptors Parts of a cell with which a drug molecule interacts to trigger its desired response or effect.
Excretion The elimination of toxic or inactive metabolites primarily by the kidneys; the intestines, lungs, and mammary, sweat, and salivary glands also may be involved.
First-pass Metabolism The initial biotransformation of a drug during passage through the liver from the portal vein that occurs before the drug reaches the general circulation.
Generic Name The official, established name assigned to a drug.
Idiosyncrasy An abnormal or peculiar response.
Loading Dose A large quantity of drug that temporarily exceeds the capacity of the body to excrete the drug.
Maintenance Dose The amount of a drug required to keep a desired steady state of drug concentration in tissues.
Official Name The name of a drug that is followed by the initials USP or NF, denoting its listing in one of the official publications, usually the same as the generic name.
Parenteral Of or pertaining to any medication route other than the alimentary canal.
Pharmaceutics The science of dispensing drugs.
Pharmacodynamics The study of how a drug acts on a living organism.
Pharmacokinetics The study of how the body handles a drug over a period of time, including the process of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.
Placental Barrier A protective biological membrane that separates the blood vessels of the mother and the fetus.
Potentiation The enhancement of the effect of a drug, caused by concurrent administration of two drugs in which one drug increases the effect of the other.
Summation The combined effects of two drugs that equal the sum of the individual effects of each agent.
Synergism The combined action of two drugs that is greater than the sum of each agent acting independently.
Therapeutic action The desired, intended action of a drug.
Therapeutic index A measurement of the relative safety of a drug.
Tolerance A physiological response that requires that a drug dosage be increased to produce the same effect formerly produced by a smaller dose.
Trade Name the trademark name of a drug, designated by the drug company that sells the medication.
Untoward Effects Side effects that prove harmful to the patient.
Adrenergic Agents Stimulate the Sympathetic Nervous System, proveds the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine when given.
Adrenergic Responses Stimulation and inhibition of the Sympathetic Nervous System
Alpha 1 and 2 Effects Vasoconstriction of the systemic blood vessels, mild broncho-constriction, no cardiac effects, activation of secretory glands.
Beta 1 Effects Increased heart rate, increased contractile force of the myocardium, increased automaticity in the heart.
Beta 2 Effects Vasodilation of the systemic blood vessels, bronchodilation. Inhibits secretory action of salivary glands.
Sympathomimetic Drugs producing effects which mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system.
Catecholamines Adrenergic agents with catechol nucleus as basic molecular structure. (Norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol)
Sympathetic or Beta Blocker Blocks effects of the sympathetic nervous system.
Cholinergic Agents Stimulate the parasympathetic providing cholinergic effects.
Parasympathomimetics Drugs which mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic Blocker, Parasympatholytic, Vogolytic Block actions of the parasympathetic nervous system particularly to Vagus nerve.
Created by: firedawg29