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Romantic period

Romanticism Reaction to the ideals of the Classic era; extreme, expressive; conservative vs liberal
Nationalism Composers cultivating their own national identity through music; using folk song ideas
Virutoso Being an extremely proficient at only one instrument as opposed to able to play many
Program Music Music that conveys a story, emotion or idea other than whats on the page
Absolute Music Music that had no extramusical appropriations
F. Schubert Son of school teacher; liked to match words to music; very big on expression;
H. Berlioz Leader of radical romantic movement; pushed limits of orchestration; founder of modern conducting
F. Mendelssohn Conservative romantic composer. Conducted St. Matthew's Passion. Used Baroque genres with expressive Romanticism. Embraced growing tradition and influence of past music.
Robert Schumann Took lessons from Weich (Clara's father). Character pieces super important. Went crazy in old age. Married Clara. Fathered 8 children.
Clara Schumann Performed; a virtuoso. Travelled a lot. Married Robert, curbed performances. Had 8 children. Wasn't allowed to play while Robert composed.
F. Chopin Piano. Moved to Paris. Highest social circles. New possibilities for piano; stronger frame, more dynamics for example.
Lied German song.
Song Cycle Set of songs about an idea.
Schubertiad Group of musicians; playing Schubert's music in his salons
Damper pedal Dampens the sound; gives a different texture.
Idee fixe Repeated motive/melody
Dies irae Chant sequence; used as a symbol of death, the macabre, or the diabolical
Tempo Rubato "Stolen time". Distortion of tempo for expressive purposes
Grand Opera After the French Revolution, the government funded opera houses. The large budget created huge scale operas; some featured an on-stage pond and real elephants. This was super expensive to fund, and ran out of money quickly.
Scribe and Meyerbeer Librettist and composer; leaders of French Grand Opera
Opera comique Spoken dialogue instead of recit. ; less pretentious than grand opera; straightforward comedy or serious drama
Opera bouffe Offenbach was a leader of this genre; witty satirical elements of comic opera
Lyric opera Between comique and grand; main appeal through melody; romantic drama or fantasy; Gounod is famous for this genre.
Exoticism Exaggerated composition of a "foreign" land. ie. Bizet's Carmen, Spanish flavour.
Seguidila Exotic piece; fast in 3/4 meter. Accomp. like strum of guitar
G. Rossini One of the most popular composers of his generation. Opera scene; Italian; known for comic operas. Blended buffa and seria
Patter song Rapidly delivered recitative; repeated often, with speed and precision
Bel canto Seemingly effortless technique, beautiful tone through entire range, agility, flexibility, and control. Most important aspect is the voice.
Cavatina entrance aria
Cantibile Developed by Rossini. First section of aria, slow, expressing calm mood.
Cabaletta Developed by Rossini. Last section of aria, lively and brilliant, expressing joy or despair.
G. Verdi Ruling presence of Italian music second half of 19th century. "patriotic", Viva verdi. Human drama in his operas. Vocal melody important. Very Romantic era, expressive.
Reminiscence motives Repeating motives from earlier theme; unified the work musically.
C. M. Von Weber Established German Romantic opera. Emphasized folklore, fairy tales, supernatural. Nationalism envoked.
German Romantic opera Emphasized folklore, fairy tales. Singspiel root.
R. Wagner One of most influential composers. Believed main purpose of music to serve dramatic expression. Supported by King of Bavaria. Saw himself as Beethoven's successor. Exiled to Switzerland for political ties.
Der Ring des Nebelungen Ring Cycle; series of operas telling story of a magical ring. 19 hours of music over 4 consecutive evenings. LOTR similar.
Bayreuth Festspielhaus Hall built strictly for Wagner's works. Ran today by his descendants.
Music Drama Genre created by Wagner; as complete work of art (aka Gesamtkunstwerk)
Gesamtkunstwerk Oneness of drama and music
Leitmotif "leading motive", associated with person, event, emotion, thing, etc. Reoccur throughout to work; sense of contiunity
Anxiety of Influence Living in the shadow of composers such as Beethoven; scared some composers from writing or publishing works as to not be compared to him.
F. Liszt Intriguing music personality. Virtuoso, pushed piano to its limit, inspired by Panini; taught, composed, performed; ended career in church
Symphonic (tone) poem 1-movement programmatic work. few themes developed.
Transcription Liszt used this to bring other's original works to audience
J. Brahms Leading German composer of his time. Pianist, composer, teacher. Supporters of Schumanns. Applied formal genres, conservative romantic.
Tchaikovsky Leading Russian composer of his time. Consevatory training. Most famous for ballets.
B. Smetana Bohemian composer. Sought to create national music.
A. Dvorak Peasant background. "the Bohemian Brahms". Advocated music nationalism. Violinist
G. Mahler Leading Austro-German composer of symphonies after Brahms. Born in Bohemia. Career as opera and orch, conductor. Programmatic, expressive composer.
Orchestral Lied German-based art song, written for symphony.
R. Strauss Dominant figure in German musical life. Mastered orchestra. Composer and conductor. Wrote tone poems.
Mighty Handful Balakriev, Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky, Rimsky-Korasov. Regular people, wanting to keep Russian nationalism alive. Learned to compose; Modest Musorgsky most famous.
E. Grieg Norweigan composer. Wanting to keep nationalism alive. Piano style emulates Chopin. Modal, bass drones, changing time signature.
E. Elgar First famous English composer in over 200 years. Music not inspired by folk songs.
G. Puccini Most successful Italian composer after Verdi. Distinct style; focuses on vocal melody. Famous Madam Butterfly.
Created by: 1109666776



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