Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

UltimateAPpart4

TermDefinition
insertion sequence The simplest kind of transposable element, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition.
insulin Hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to decrease blood sugar.
integral proteins Integral proteins that span the membrane.
intercellular joining The function of membrane proteins in which membrane proteins of adjacent cells hook together, as in gap junctions or tight junctions.
interferon Protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a virus; helps other cells resist the virus.
intermediate disturbance Moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity.
interphase Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases.
interspecific competition Species compete for a limiting resource. (-/-)
interstitial fluid Watery, internal environment of vertebrates.
introns Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.
invasive species Species generally introduced by humans, that take hold outside of their native range.
inversion A type of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed.
island equilibrium model Islands great for study due to isolation and limited size; can study species diversity and extinction rates.
isomers Same atoms but different arrangement.
isotonic Describes solutions that have an equal concentration of total solutes.
iteroparity Repeated reproduction.
jasmonic acid An important molecule in plant defense against herbivores.
K - selected species Life history traits sensitive to population density. Small number of large offspring, extensive parental care, repeated reproduction.
karyotype Photograph of chromosomes grouped in order and in pairs.
keystone species Not necessarily abundant, but exert a strong control on community structure due to a pivotal ecological role.
kin selection Natural selection that favors altruistic behaviors by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.
kinesis A simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimuli.
kinetic energy Energy associated with relative motion of objects.
kinetochore A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
kinetochore microtubules Connects the centrosome with the kinetochore in the centromere region of the chromosome.
lactic acid fermetation When pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactic as am end product, with no release of carbon dioxide.
lagging strand A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
leading strand The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.
leaf The major sites of photosynthesis in most plants.
leaf abscission Aging and dropping of leaves controlled by auxin and ethylene.
learning The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
life cycle All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity.
life expectancy at birth Predicted average length of life at birth.
life history Traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival.
life tables Age-specific summaries of survival patterns of a population.
ligaments Join bones to bones at joints.
ligand Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
ligand Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
ligand-gated ion channel Type of membrane receptor that has a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape.
light limitation Depth to which light penetrates limits primary production.
light reaction Part of photosynthesis that involves light. ATP and NADPH are produced. Takes place on the thylakoid membrane.
limiting nutrient Greater limiting factor than light in oceans and lakes.
linkage map A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.
linkage map A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
linked genes Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.
liposomes Membrane-bound droplets that form when lipids are added to water.
local regulators These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.
locus The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.
logistic growth When limiting factors restrict size of population to the carrying capacity of the environment. Forms an S-shaped curve.
long-day plant A plant that flowers only when the light period is longer than a critical length. Usually spring or early summer.
loose connective tissue Tissue that binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Contains collagenous, elastic, and recticular fibers.
lymphocytes White blood cells.
lyse Cell bursting.
lysogenic cycle A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.
lysosome A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
lytic cycle A type of viral (phage) replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis (and death) of the host cell.
M phase Mitosis and cytokinesis.
macroclimate Patterns on the global, regional and local level.
macroevolution Evolutionary change above the species level.
macrophages Amoeboid cells that roam connective tissue and engulf foreign particles and debris of dead cells.
major histocompatibility compex (MHC) Binds to a fragment of an antigen within a cell and presents it on the surface of the membrane.
map units A measurement of the distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to a 1 percent recombination frequency.
mark-recapture method A sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations.
mate choice copying Individuals in a population copy mate choice of others.
maximum likelihood A principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time.
maximum parsimony "Occam's Razor." A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts.
mechanical isolation Morphological differences prevent fertilization.
medulla oblongata Contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
membrane potential The voltage across a cell's plasma membrane.
memory cells General term for lymphocytes that are responsible for immunological memory and protective immunity.
mesenteries Sheets of connective tissue in moist or fluid-filled body cavities. Sheets of connective tissue in moist or fluid-filled body cavities.
mesophyll Spongy tissue in the interior of the leaf where most chloroplasts are found.
messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.
metabolic pathway Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product.
metabolic rate Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time; the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions.
metaphase plate Plane midway between the two poles of the cell where chromosomes line up during metaphase.
metapopulation When many populations are linked.
methanogens Archaea that release methane, a greenhouse gas.
micro-RNA (miRNA) small single stranded RNA molecules that bind to mRNA and can degrade mRNA or block its translation.
microclimate Very fine patterns of climate influenced by features of the environment such as shade ares and wind patterns.
microevolution Change in genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation.
midbrain Region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight.
migration Relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.
Miller and Urey Experiment found that organic molecules can form in a strongly reducing atmosphere.
missense mutations Most common type of mutation, a base pair mutation in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
mitochondria The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
mitosis Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.
mitotic spindle An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
monoecious If staminate and carpellate flowers are on the same plant.
monogamous One male mating with one female.
monohybrids Parents that are heterozygous for one character.
monophyletic group A taxonomic grouping that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
monosomic A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two.
morphogenesis The process by which an organism takes shape and the differentiated cells occupy their appropriate locations.
motor neurons Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
mucous membrane Membrane that secretes mucus that lubricates the surface of organs and keeps them moist.
Müllerian mimicry Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.
multiple fruit A fruit derived from an entire inflorescence.
multiplication rule To determine the probability, we multiply the probability of one event by the probability of another.
muscle tissue Tissue made of cells capable of contracting.
mutagens physical and chemical agents that interact with DNA to cause mutations
mutation Changes in the nucleotide sequence in DNA.
mutations Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.
mutualism Interspecific interaction that benefits both species. (+/+)
myelin sheath A layer of electrical insulation that surrounds the axon.
natural killer (NK) cells These cells kill cancer cells and cells infected with viruses. They bind to their targets and deliver a lethal burst of chemicals to produce holes in the target cell's membrane leading to its destruction.
natural selection A population can change over time if individuals with more fit traits leave more offspring than less fit individuals.
negative feedback A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will counteract the change. Maintains a steady state.
nervous tissue Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals.
net primary production (NPP) Energy used by primary producers for respiration.
neuron Structural and functional unit of nervous system.
neurosecretory cells Neurons that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter.
neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
neutrophils Most abundant white blood cell., The most abundant type of white blood cell. Phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
niche Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources; an organism's "role".
nitric oxide (NO) Local regulator that regulates blood oxygen levels, A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.
nodes of Ranvier Gaps in the myelin sheath to which voltage-gated sodium channels are confined.
noncompetitive inhibitors Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).
noncyclic photophosphorolation Photosystem II performs photolysis to provide electrons for the electron transport chain that drives a chemiosmotic gradient that produces ATP.
nondisjunction Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
nonequilibrium model Communities are constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances.
nonpolar No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
nonsense mutations A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) When hormones cause mitochondria to produce heat instead of ATP in some mammals.
nonsister chromatids Different chromatids (maternal and paternal) of the same chromosome.
norepinephrine A precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses.
nuclear envelope Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.
nuclear lamina A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.
nuclear transplantation A technique in which the nucleus of one cell is placed into another cell that already has a nucleus or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed.
nuclease A DNA cutting enzyme that excises damaged DNA.
nucleic acid hybridization Base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule.
nucleic acid probe Radioactively labeled nucleic acid molecule used to tag a particular DNA sequence.
nucleoid A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
nucleolus Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.
Okazaki fragments Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
oligodendrocytes Type of glial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.
oligosaccharins A type of elicitor that is derived from cellulose fragments released by cell wall damage
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis there is one gene that codes for one polypeptide
operant conditioning Learning based on the consequences of responding.
operator Region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions.
operon A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.
optimal foraging theory Views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutrition and costs of obtaining food.
organelles Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.
organs Tissues are organized into:, group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
origins of replication Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
orthologous genes Homologous genes passed in a straight line from one generation to the next.
osmoregulation The control of water balance.
osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
osteoblasts Bone-forming cells.
outgroups Species or group of species closely related to the ingroup.
ovary In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop.
ovule A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
oxidation Loss of electrons.
oxidative phosphorylation When energy is released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP.
oxidizing agent Accepts electrons and becomes reduced.
oxidizing agent B oxidizes A by removing A's electrons.
ozone layer Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.
Created by: ssteuter