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GCSE Music

AOS1 Rhythm & Metre

Bar lines A vertical line that appears before each strong beat. Divide the stave into equal measures.
Measure One bar of music.
Beat Unit of time, usually measured in crotchets.
Semibreve A note lasting 4 crotchet beats.
Minim A note lasting 2 crotchet beats.
Crotchet Lasts for one crotchet beat.
Quaver 1/2 crotchet beat.
Semiquaver 1/4 crotchet beat.
Time signature Two numbers placed one on top of the other. Top number = how many in a bar. BOTTOM number how LONG each beat is.
Strong beat The first beat of each bar.
Simple time You count ALL the beats. The beat is easily divided into 2's or 4's. The time signature TOP number is mostly 2, 3, or 4
Compound time You count the BIG beat - The beat is divided into 3's. The time signature TOP number has 6, 9, or 12.
Anacrusis An up beat before the first complete bar of music. A phrase that starts on a beat before a barline.
Triplet A SIMPLE TIME beat that has been divided into 3 INSTEAD OF 2 or 4
Augmentation A device that takes a melody then doubles the value of each note in the phrase.
Diminution A device that takes a melody then halves the value of each note in the phrase.
Cross rhythms Two different patterns of that are played together to create a more complex pattern.
Syncopation Chords or melody notes that are not played ON the beat but appear in the 'gaps' between.
Tempo The speed of the music.
BPM Short for Beats Per Minute. 60bpm = 1 beat per second
Grave Very, very slow: 40-50 bpm
Lento Slow; 50-60 bpm
Largo Slow, 50-60 bpm
Adagio Slow & stately: 60-76 bpm
Andante Walking pace: 76-100 bpm
Moderato Moderately: 100-110 bpm
Allegro Fast: 120-140 bpm
Vivace Lively & fast: 140-160 bpm
Presto Very fast: 180-200
Rubato Flexible time, 'robbing' time.
Metre - Regular The pattern of beats. 2 beats per bar=duple metre. 3 beats = triple metre. 4 beats = quadruple metre.
Metre - Irregular The pattern of beats. In a 5 beat bar they could be grouped in a 3+2, in a 7 beat bar grouped 4+3 etc.
Dotted notes A dot after a note makes it last 1/2 as long again. i.e a 2 beat note (minim) with a dot 2+ (1/2 again) 1 = 3.
Created by: kipple