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Microbial Genetics


genomics the study of an organism's entire genome
chromosome a discrete cellular structure composed of neatly packaged DNA molecule
gene a segment of DNA the encodes for the RNA to make a proten
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype the expression of the genotype to create traits
replication the process of duplicating DNA to pass on to offspring
helicase enzyme that unzips DNA
primase enzyme the synthesized an RNA primer
DNA polymerase III enzyme that adds new DNA bases in DNA replication
ligase enzyme that functions like molecular glue
transcription synthesizing an RNA molecule using DNA as the template
translation reading an RNA molecule to produce proteins
codon a triplet of nucleotides which encode for a particular amino acide
intron in eukaryotic cells the sequences of RNA that are removed when processing an mRNA molecule
exon in eukaryotic cells, the sequences of RNA that encode for the protein
operon in prokarotes, a set of genes that are regulated as a single unit
conjugation attachment of two related species to form a bridge using a pilus to transfer DNA. plasmid mediated
transformation the uptake of naked DNA by a competent cell
transduction the transfer of DNA mediated by the action of bacterial virus (bacteriophage)
plasmid extrachromosomal DNA that carry genes that are not required for cell growth but may confer an adaptive advantage such as antibiotic resistance
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
transposons transposable elements or jumping genes, peices of DNA which can move from one part of the genome to another
mutation any change in the DNA sequence
spontaneous mutation a random change in the DNA that arises from errors in replication
induced mutation a mutation caused by exposure to a mutagen
mutagen physical or chemical agents which cause mutations
point mutation addition, deletion or substitution of a singe base
missense mutation point mutation that results in expression of different amino acid
nonsense mutation point mutation that result in a stop codon
silent mutation point mutation which does not change the amino acide
frameshift mutation insertions or deletions which shifts the reading frame of the mRNA
inducible operon an operon that is normally 'off' but can be switched on, example lac operon
repressible operon an operon that is normally 'on' but can be switched off when an excess of the product is available, example trp operon
Created by: DrBerlyn