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Mitosis, Meiosis & Reproduction

unicellular a one celled organism
multicellular many celled organism
prokaryote cell that has no nucleus; ex. bacteria
eukaryote cell that has a nucleus
DNA molecule that contains the genetic information; contains instructions for growth, development & activities
chromosomes chromatins compact into visible structures in early stages of cell division
cell cycle life cycle of a eukaryotic cell, there are three parts: interphase, mitosis & cytokinesis
interphase part of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing, cell spends most of the time in this stage
mitosis in eukaryotes, part of the cell cycle where the nucleus divided; 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase
cytokinesis division of the parent cell's cytoplasm, now there are two cells
meiosis type of cell division that produces haploid cells such as egg cells & sperm cells
homologous chromosomes pairs of chromosomes that have the same structure and size
asexual reproduction one organism produces one or more new organisms that are identical to itself
sexual reproduction two parents contribute a sex cell to the new organisms; half from mom & half from dad so offspring are not identical to either parent
fertilization a sperm cell and an egg cell joined together
binary fission asexual: reproduction in prokaryotes where the parent splits in two, producing two new cells which are genetically identical to the parent
budding asexual: organism develops a tiny bud on its body which grows to a full-sized organism that is genetically identical to the parent
cell smallest unit that can perform all life processes
sex cell a male produces sperm cells and a female produces egg cells
spore asexual: specialized cells that can survive in harsh conditions; carried by the wind; both prokaryote & eukaryotes can form spores
vegetative reproduction asexually: through mitosis new plants grow from roots, stems & leaves; runners are above ground stems, tubers are underground stem and plantlets are tiny plants that grow around the edges of a plant's leaves.
zygote name for the new cell formed when the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm cell
prophase 1 stage in meiosis where crossing over occurs to create genetic variety
diploid two complete sets of chromosomes; known as somatic cells;2n
haploid single set of chromosomes;sex cells; n
chromatid half of a replicated chromosome
centriole organelle involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division
gametes reproductive cells such as egg and sperm cells; sex cells
daughter cells cells that result from cell division
somatic cell all body cells
regeneration asexual: organism capable of regrowing certain body parts
Created by: dsookdeo
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