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BZ 310 Exam 2

v-type pumps uses pyrophosphate (PPi-> 2Pi)
pH 3 is 1 mmol concentration of H+
ion channel proteins favored by membrane potential
proton antiport proteins into vacuole Na, Ca, sucrose (H+ out to make it favorable)
tight junction prevents flow between cells in the intestinal tract
how is glucose taken up? 2 Na+ for every 1 glucose then ATPase removes the Na+ (also osmosis is occurring with water)
3 main types of neurons sensory, interneurons, motor
why are action potentials uni-directional? refractory period of Na+ gated channels on other side that just opened
action potentials are a ___ ____ ____ positive feedback loop
what returns membrane potential back to normal? K+ voltage gated (out) and leak channels
voltage gated K+ channels are also called shaker channels b/c of fruit flies that shake due to deficiency of them
where does depolarization occur? Nodes of Ranvier, not in places where myelin is present
series of events at neuromuscular junction action potential, Ca2+ channel opens, synaptic vesicle fuses w/ membrane, neurotransmitter release, acetylcholine binds, Na+ in, Ca2+ released into cytosol, muscle contraction, P-class pump moves Ca2+ back into SR
axon hillock depolarization must reach potential for an AP to go; all or none principle
how do local anesthetics work? block Na+ channels in sensory neurons
where does the majority of ATP in neurons go? Na/K pump (3 Na out 2 K in)
patch clamping salty solution over a single channel, then an electrode inside; measure current and potential
ΔG total= ΔGconc + ΔGvolt
ATP hydrolysis pkg/kcal per mol about 8 pkg; 10-12 kcal/mol
ΔGconc at 300K -1.4 x log C0/Ci (i=intended not initial)
ΔGvolt= zFV (charge x 23 x volt)
which transporter transports glucose from enterocyte? glut-2
pmf= V + 60 mV x ΔpH
ion motive force= V + 60 mV x log (C0/Ci)
simplified Nernst equation V=60 mV x log (C0/Ci)
Valinomycin allow K+ to transfer across
Nigericin K+/H+ antiport ionophore
A23187 Ca2+ ionophore
CCCP H+ ionophore
NH4+ H+ ionophore
Gramicidin nonspecific pore ionophore
TPP+ lipophilic cation, delocalized charges
anabolic pathways are (4) endergonic, divergent, reductive, NADPH intermediate
catabolic pathways are (4) exergonic, convergent, oxidative, NADH intermediate
reduced have __ ___ electrons high energy
oxidized have ___ ____ electrons low energy
negative E0 strong electron donor
positive E0 strong electron acceptor
what is required to break down very large FAs? peroxisomes
2 regulated enzymes in glycolysis hexokinase and phosphofructokinase
pyruvate -> acetyl coA what enzyme? pyruvate dehydrogenase
reactions in mitochondria pyruvate -> acetate + CO2 + NADH
guanine vs adenine guanine has a double bond oxygen
FAD/FMN flavins
max ATP made from one glucose would be 38 but 2 used up to get into mitochondria
palmityl coA -> 31 NADH + 15 FADH2 + 8 ATP = 131 ATP
lactate -> pyruvate cost 6 ATP in liver (back to glucose)
0-3 secounds ATP stocks
2-10 seconds creatine-P
7-60 seconds anaerobic metabolism + respiration
1min- 90 min respiration (glucose and fats)
over 90 minutes fats only
pmf is used for ___ in bacteria motility
oxidation is ___ to pmf generation coupled
type 1 redox carriers capacity for protons and elctrons (ubquinone)
type 2 redox carriers capacity for only electrons (heme)
ferric 3+
ferrous 2+
why does the ETC use each complex rather than just jumping down? specific binding
complex 4 and 1 are conformational pumps
ubiquinone and complex III are redox loops
why isn't 3 H+ enough per ATP? 8-9 actual; UCP, cotransporters use energy
Cellular work ___ the ____ ratio lowers the ATP/ADP ratio (metabolism is coupled)
Best sustained oxygen consumption (mitochondria experiment) ADP, Pi, pyruvate, hexokinase, glucose
Phloem sugar export
Xylem H2O transport
___% of O2 production occurs in the oceans 50%
light reactions occur in thylakoid membrane, NADPH and ATP formed
calvin cycle occurs in stroma; CO2 fixed and reduced to sugars (NADPH and ATP consumed)
The ion in chlorophyll is magnesium
Chlorophyll protein LHC (I and II)
How many electrons per oxygen produced? 4
How many electrons can PQ pick up? 2
Photosystem I light energy removes electron from P700 (ferredoxin), reduce NADP+, replenish electrons from plastocynanin
Strongest oxidant in nature PS II
Strongest reductant in nature P700 (ferredoxin)
Small trick of photosynthesis reduce NADP with electrons from water + build pmf
Big trick of photosynthesis split water without causing damage
Cyclic electron flow no NADPH made, just ATP synthesis (bacteria do this)
Pmf chloroplasts pH
Pmf mitochondria voltage
Complex I/II are like PS II
Ubiquinone is like plastoquinone
Cyt B/C complex is like cytochrome B/F complex
Cytochrome C is like plastocyanin
CytC oxidase is like PS I
Uncouplers + 2 examples decreased ATP synthesis, increased electron transport, ammonia and dinitrophenol
Blockers + example decreased ATP synthase and decreased electron transport, cyanide
Most abundant enzyme on the planet RuBisCO
Per GAP produced, use 3 CO2, 9ATP, 6NADPH
2 major fates of GAP conversion to glucose/starch in chloroplast; export for sucrose synthesis
why do chloroplastic genes exist? debunk protein to protect PS II
how to prevent light damage (5) light regulation, cyclic electron flow, feedback inhibition of PS II, repair of PS II, photorespiration
photorespiration rubisco can react w/ O2 to form 2-P-glycolate (toxic) then convert to triose (costly)
photorespiration 3 organelles chloroplast, peroxisome, mitochondria
special c4 anatomy mesophyll don’t have RuBisCO, bundle sheet cells have RuBisCO but limited PSII (corn is like this)
glycolysis oxidation step 6
glycolysis substrate-level phosphorylation steps 7 and 10
complex III aka (2) coenzyme Q, cytochrome C reductase
complex IV aka cytochrome oxidase
How many net ATP are produced anaerobically per glucose? 2
How many net ATP are produced with the complete breakdown of one glucose under aerobic conditions in a eukaryote? 36
how many NADPH used per carbon atom? 2
how many ATP used per carbon atom? 3
Created by: melaniebeale