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Bio-ch. 16-inverbr

Biology-Chapter 16-Invertebrates

zoology the study of animals
symmetry a likeness in size, shape, or structure of parts of an organism types: radial, bilateral (some organisms are asymmetrical)
endoskeleton an internal skeleton usually composed of bone and cartilage
exoskeleton a system of external plates that protect and support
invertebrate animals without backbones largest group is arthropods (also largest in K. Animalia)
vertebrates animals with backbones
amoebocyte an amoeba-like cell in a sponge's mesenchyme that produces spicules, transports food, and eliminates waste
ostia openings that sponges use to draw in water
osculum large opening used by sponges to expel water
sessile growing while attached to something else; nonmotile
cnidocyte a stinging cell, characteristic of cnidarians, that contains poisonous barbs, coiled threads, or a sticky substance
dorsal back
ventral belly
two forms of jellyfish (and most cnidarians) polyp, medusa
clitellum The swollen region in the anterior of an earthworm (helps to distinguish the head or anterior of the worm from the posterior or tail of the worm)
attributes of animals movement, nutrition, respiration, circulation, support, reproduction
cephalization The presence of a "head" region, usually containing nerve tissue and supplied with sensory organs cephalic-used when discussing the head region
hermaphrodite an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs
Phylum Porifera sponges (porous, sessile, filter feeders, uses collar cells to eat and amoebocytes to transport nutrients and wastes, 0 germ layers)
Phylum Cnidaria hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones, coral (have cnidocytes to sting prey, most are pressure triggered except sea anemones which are triggered by chemicals)
Phylum Echinodermata star fish (sea stars), sea urchins, sea cucumbers (can regenerate)
Phylum Mollusca snails, slugs, clams, scallops, octopus, squid
Phylum Platyhelminthes flatworms--Planarians (reproduce mainly by binary fission, and eat by sucking in food through their pharynx which is outside the mouth) (most flatworms besides planarians are parasitic)
Phylum Nematoda roundworms
Phylum Annelida segmented worms-earthworm
trocophores clilated larva (key characteristic of echinoderms)
ganglia a mass of nerve tissue that acts as a "brain" in many organisms
exothermic organism that has no internal mechanism to control body temperature, so they depend on environmental factors and behaviors to control their body temperature
endothermic organism that has the ability to control body temperature through internal processes such as metabolism
aortic arches pumping organs (compared to the "heart" in other organisms) of the earthworm
ganglia mass of nerve tissues that act as the "brain" in many organisms
Created by: marlynp