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ES-Unit 5

ES-Unit 5 - Rocks & Minerals

TermDefinition
Mineral Building block of rocks
Color Not a good mineral ID characteristic but is used for determining Igneous Rocks
Luster How a mineral reflects light - metallic or non-metallic
Hardness Determined by scratching a mineral with a tool or other mineral. Mohs scale of 1 (soft - talc) - 10 (hard - diamond)
Streak Used for determining mineral's true color, powder form of mineral on a black or white ceramic tile
Metamorphic Rock Deformation of other rocks by extreme heat/pressure, causes recrystalization and flattening of minerals into foliated stripes.
Igneous Rock Formed by cooling magma or lava - intrusive or extrusive forms
Sedimentary Rock Formed from lithification of sediments into rock or crystallized precipitate (halite or calcite). Often appears as layers.
Intrusive Large or medium sized crystals, slow cooling, rough 'texture', formed by magma, molten rock beneath Earth's surface
Extrusive small crystals (fine grained) or glassy texture, cools quickly, may have holes from trapped gasses, formed by Lava - volcanic rock outside Earth's surface
Foliated Minerals are shown in bands or stripes, occurs in metamorphic rock
Organic Rock that is made of once-living organisms (plant or animal)
Lithification Cementation of particles together by minerals in solution, the process that forms Sedimentary Rock
Crystal The unique arrangement of atoms in an ordered structure that creates an outward mineral shape. (cube, octagonal, etc.)
Intrusion Liquid rock that solidifies within the cracks of an existing rock, creating veins of a new mineral. (gold veins, quartz)
Ore A mineral that contains a useful substance that must be extracted & purified for use.
Clastic sedimentary Detrital rock that is cemented together through lithification, a type of Sedimentary rock
Chemical sedimentary Non-clastic sedimentary rock that is formed when minerals crystallize or precipitate out of solution. Examples: Halite, Calcite
Non-Foliated Metamorphic rock that has been recrystallized but does not show distinct bands. (ex. Marble)
Acid Test Useful for identifying forms of Calcium Carbonate rocks such as Limestone, Calcite, & Marble.
Planar Cleavage Exhibited by Muscovite mica, the sheets break off in thin layers due to weak molecular bonds
Granite Igneous intrusive rock, coarse grain (medium or large crystals), made of three minerals (including quartz), Silicate family of rocks, used as gravel & mined in Piedmont
Basalt Igneous extrusive rock, fine grain (small crystals), Volcanic, dark color, magnetic qualities due to Magnesium and Iron components
Halite chemical sedimentary rock, commonly known as table salt
Calcite mineral is formed from shells that have dissolved into water then depositing as a chemical sedimentary, carbonate family, major component in limestone and marble
Gneiss Foliated metamorphic rock, formed from Granite, colored bands of minerals formed during compression and recrystallization
Quartz Silicate, Major component of sand, glass, computer chips
Created by: tejneckyc