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Unit 6 - Genetics

TermDefinition
trait a characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through the genes
allele One or more alternate forms of a gene
amino acid The subunit of a protein
anticodon Three bases on a tRNA molecule that match up with the codons
biotechnology the process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generation
chromosome Compact structure of tightly coiled DNA within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
cloning The creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another
codon A unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutive nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid in protein synthesis
DNA A nucleic acid molecule in the form double helix that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information
dominant A trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it
electrophoresis A process in which fragments of DNA are sorted by size. Used to determine relatedness among organisms
expressed a set of technologies that humans use to alter the genetic instructions of an organism by substituting DNA molecules
gene a segment of DNA (on a chromosome) that contains the code for a specific trait
gene Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
genetic engineering Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms.
genetic recombination the formation of a new combination of genes during sexual reproduction
genotype Genetic make up of an organism; the genome
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
heterozygous Refers to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait.
homozygous Refers to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait.
hybrid The offspring produced by crossing two individuals with different traits
mutation Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information. Leads to genetic variation.
nucleotide Building Block of a nucleic acid. Composed of a sugar, phosphate and a base
phenotype Physical characteristics of an organism; the part of genetics that is seen
recessive Describes an allele that is not expressed in heterozygous individuals. Must have two recessive alleles in order for the gene to be expressed
recombinant DNA Molecule formed when fragments of DNA from two or more different organisms are spliced together.
replicate to copy the pattern for a new molecule
RNA – Ribonucleic Acid A nucleic acid composed of a long
sex-linked gene Gene located on the X chromosome. Males tend to inherit sex-linked traits
sexual reproduction a method of reproduction that involves two parents producing offspring that are genetically different from either parent
subunit the section of a DNA molecule that contains a sugar
template any alteration in the sequence of DNA
transcription Process in which a portion of DNA (a gene) is copied into complementary RNA (mRNA)
translation Decoding of mRNA into a polypeptide chain. Occurs at the ribosome
Created by: mrcadettescience