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Adult III test 2

Specific types of Cancers

a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow, lymph system, and spleen. leukemia
leukemia occurs in all age groups but most common in children and young adults
leukemia results in an accumulation of dysfunctional cells because of a loss of regulation in cell division
symptoms of leukemia A-anemia N-neutropenia T-thrompocytopenia
classification of leukemia can be done base on acute and chronic and the type of WBCs involved. The terms acute and chronic refer to the cell maturity and nature of disease onset
characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells, develops following malignant transformation of a singly type of immature hematopoeitic cell, followed by cellular replication and expansion of that malignant clone acute leukemia
involve more mature forms of the WBC, and the disease onset is more gradual chronic leukemia
four major types of leukemia acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cute myelogenous leukemia (AML) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) chronic lymphoctyic leukemia (CLL)
onset is abrupt and dramatic, pt may have serious infections and abnormal bleeding from onset. uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts, the precursors of granulocytes acute myelogenous leukemia
most common type of leukemia in children, immature lymphocytes proliferate in the bone marrow. fever time of diagnosis. abruptly w/ bleeding, fever, insidious w/ progressive weakness, fatigue, bone and/or joint pain. CNS problems and leukemic meningitis acute lymphocytic leukemia
four phases of chemotherapy for treatment of ALL and AML induction (intense), intensification (increase dose), consolidation (remission), modification (months to years)
cause by excessive development of mature neoplastic granulocytes in the bone marrow. move into the blood in massive #, infiltrate the liver spleen. chronic stable stage, followed by acute aggressive stage(blastic phase) once in blastic phase pt has months chronic myelogenous leukemia
In CML the cells contain a distinctive cytogenetic abnormality, which serves as a disease marker and results in translocation of genetic material between chromosome 9 and 22 philadelphia chromosome
treatment for CML is gleevec
most common leukemia in adults, slow onset, production and accumulation of functionally inactive but long lived, small, mature-appearing lymphocytes (usually B cell) infiltrate bone marrow, liver, and spleen chronic lymphocytic leukemia
treatment for CLL is rituxan and campath
combination therapy is the mainstay of treatment for leukemia. the three purposed are to <drug resistance, minimize drug toxicity, interrupt cell growth
malignant neoplasms originating in the bone marrow and lymphatic structures resulting in the proliferation of lymphocytes. fifth most common cancer in US. lymphomas
two major types of lymphomas Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
makes up about 11% of all lymphomas. malignant condition characterized by proliferation of abnormal giant, mutlinucleated cells (Reed-Sternberg cells) located in the lymph nodes. usually males adults (20-50years) Hodgkin's lymphoma
In hodgkin's lymphoma the normal structure of lymph nodes is destroyed by hyperplasia of monocytes and macrophages. the diagnotic feature is the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in lymph node biopsy specimens
The onset is insidious and the initial development is most often painless and enlargement of cervical, axillary, or inguinal lymph nodes
A group of initial findings include fever, night sweats, and weight loss (B symptoms) pain and infection
important means of diagnosing Hodkin's lymphoma are peripheral blood analysis, excisional lymph node biopsy, bone marrow examination, and radiologic evaluation
four stages of hodgkins lymphoma stage I,II,III,IV
involvement of single lymph node stage I
involvement of two or more lymph nodes on one side of diaphragm stage II
lymph node involvement above and below the diaphragm stage III
involvement outside of diaphragm (liver, bone marrow) stage IV
treatment of choice for advanced, refractory, or relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma Intensive chemo with or without the use of autologous of allogeneic HSCT and hematopoietic growth factors
The standard chemo for Hodgkins is ABVD regimen Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine
Advanced stages of Hodgkin's is treated mor aggressively with the BEACOPP regimen Bleomycin, Etoposide, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, Procarbazine, Prednisone
are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms of primarily B- or T- cells origina affecting all ages. classified according to different cellular and lymph node characteristics. indolent to agressive Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs)
unlike Hodgkins lymphomas, NHL has no hallmark feature of the Reed- Sternberg cell
can originate outside the lymph nodes, the method of spread can be unpredictable, and the majortiy of pts have widely dissemiated disease at the time of diagnosis NHL
patients with high grade lymphomas may have myphadenopathy and constitutional symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss (B symptoms)
NHL is classified based on morphologic, genetic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features
more aggressive lymphomas are more responsive to treatment and more likely to be cured, so indolent lymphomas have a long course and are difficult to treat. the treatment for NHL involves chemotherapy and sometimes radiation
a condition in which neoplastic plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow, produce abnormal and excessive amounts of immunoglobulin and destroy bone. twice as common in men (>40 years) occurs more in african americans multiple myeloma
in some patients excessive production and secretion of free light-chain proteins (bence jones proteins) from the myeloma cell is also seen and can be detected in the urine, sign of renal failure
can lead to collapse of vertebrae with ensuing compression of the spinal cord in NHL vertebral destruction
ambulation and adequate hydration are used to treat hypercalcemia, dehydration, and potential renal damage.
is usually the first treatment recommended for multiple myeloma chemo with corticosteriods
other treatments for multiple myeloma palliative radiation, chemotherapy (thalidomide, revlimid), high dose chemo + HSCT = higher response rate
Created by: 605946556
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