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Genetics

QuestionAnswer
who is known as the farther of genetics? Mendel
What did he study? Pea Plants
What is the segment of DNA that encodes for traits? Gene
What is an allele? it is a different form of a gene
what is a dominant gene? mask (hide) any other form of a gene
what is a recessive gene? the form of a gene that is masked (hidden)
define homozygous an individual that has two of the same alleles for a gene
define Heterozygous an individual that has two different alleles for a gene
what is a test cross? the crossing of an unknown individual with a recessive individual to determine whether the unknown individual is heterozygous or homozygous
what is incomplete dominance? is where neither allele masks the other but instead you see an intermediate in the heterozygous.
what is an example of incomplete dominance? red flower X white flower --> pink flower
what are co-dominant alleles? is when neither allele masks the other but instead you see both alleles appear
what are multiple alleles? more than two alleles influence the same gene
what is an example of a multiple allele? The human blood group
what are Polygenic traits? traits that are controlled by more than one gene
what is an example of a Polygenic trait? eye color, height, fingerprint
what are karyotype ? diagrams that arrange chromosomes from largest to smallest in order to detect diseases caused by nondisjunction
what is a pedigrees? a chart, similar to a family tree that traces a particular trait or disease
what kind of traits are Hemophilia and colorblindness? Sex-linked traits
in a pedigree , what do circles represent? females
In a pedigree what do squares represent? Males
In a pedigree what does shaded shapes represent? the individual express the trait
In a pedigree what does the shapes that are not shaded represent? the individual may or may not express that trait.
what is the human genome project ? is to determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome
what is gene therapy ? the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
what is Recombinant DNA? DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms.
What is DNA fingerprinting ? the analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals.
What is a Gel electrophoresis? a technique that is used to separate mixtures of DNA based on size
What is Sickle Cell Anemia? red blood cells are sickled shaped instead of round , and cannot carry oxygen
What mutation causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Mutation in the HBB on chromosome 11
What are some of the symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia? pain through out the body
what is Cystic Fibrosis? mucus blocks airways
What mutation causes Cystic Fibrosis? abnormalities in the gene found in chromosomes 7
What are some of the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? frequent lung infection , shortness of breath
What is down syndrome? Mental and physical retardation
What mutation causes down syndrome? an extra chromosomal 21
What are some of the symptoms of down syndrome? short stature,heart defect , and mental disability
what is Huntington's disease? the nerves cells breakdown over time.
What mutation causes Huntington's disease? depression,small involuntary movement, poor coordination , and trouble with learning new information
What are some of the symptoms of Huntington's disease? gradual loss of brain function and uncontrollable movement
what is PKU? genetic disorder that causes abnormal physical and mental development
What mutation causes PKU? the body is unable to break down an important enzyme called Phenylalanine
What are some of the symptoms of PKU? mental retardation , physical disabilities ,seizures , eczema , odors in breath skin and urine
What is Turner's syndrome? genetic condition in which a female does not have the usual pair of chromosomes .
What mutation causes Turner's syndrome? Cells are missing all or part of the X chromosome
What are some of the symptoms of Turner's syndrome? dry eyes , infertility , short height and vaginal dryness
Created by: lynnsay