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chapter 7/8

Crust Earths solid rocky surface contains continents and ocean floor
Original horizontality The idea that many kinds of rock form flat, horizontal layers
Continental drift The idea that a supercontinent split into pieces, the continents, which drifted into their present location
Sea-floor spreading The idea that new crust is forming at ridges in the sea floor, spreading apart the crust on either side of the ridges
Magma Hot, molten rock beneath Earth's surface
Plate tectonics The idea that Earth's surface is broken into plates that slide slowly on the mantle
Mantle The layer beneath Earth's crust
Subduction The sliding of a denser ocean plate
Fault A huge crack in Earth's surface at or below the surface, the sides of which may show evidence of motions
focus the point where an earthquake starts as rocks begin to slide past each other
seismic wave a vibration that spreads out away from a focus when an earthquake happens
epicenter The point on earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
aftershock shaking of earth's crust after the initial shaking of an earth quake
seismograph a sensitive device that detects the shaking of Earth's crust during an earthquake
Magnitude the amount of energy released by an earthquake
vent the central opening in an volcano through which magma may escape
lava magma that reaches Earth's surface and flows out of a vent
crater a cup like hollow that forms at the top of the volcano around the vent
hot spot a very hot part of the sun's mantle where magma can melt through a plate moving above it
cinder cone volcano a steep sided cone that forms from explosive eruptions of hot rocks
shield volcano a wide gently sloped cone that forms from fomes of lava
composite volcano a cone formed from explosive eruptions of hot rock followed by a flow of lava over and over
geothermal energy energy from heat within the earth
Fold Mountain A mountain made up mostly of rock layers folded by being squeezed together.
Fault-block mountain A mountain made by huge tilted blocks of rock separated from surrounding rocks by faults
Weathering The breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces by natural process
Erosion The picking up and removal of rock particles
Soil A mixture of weathered rock, decayed plant and animal matter, living things, air, and water
Humus Material in humus formed by the break down of plant and animal material
Soil Horizon Any of the layers of soil from the surface to the bedrock below
Ground Water Water that soaks into soil and rock by collecting in spaces between rock particles
Mass Wasting The downhill movement of Earth material by gravity
Deposition The dropping off of setiment
Glacier A big sheet of ice and snow that moves slowly over land
Till A jumble of many sizes of sediment deposited by a glacier
Moraine A deposit of many sizes of sediment in front of or along the sides of a glacier
Mineral A natural occouring solid in Earth's crust with a definite structure and composition
Igneous Rock A rock that when hot, liquid lava cools and hardens into a solid
Sedimentary Rock A rock that forms from pieces of other rocks that are squeezed or centimented together
Metamorphic Rock A rock that forms from another kind of rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical change
Rock Cycle Rocks continualy changing from one kind to another in a never ending procces
Super Position The idea that in a series of rock layers, the bottom layer is the oldest and the top layer is the youngest
Relative Age The age of a rock as compared with another rock
Geologic Column A listing of Earth's rock layers in order of oldest to youngest
Fossil Any trace, imprint, or remains of a living thing preserved in Earth's crust
Index Fossil The remains of a living thing that was wide spread but lived for a short part of Earth's history
Half-life The time it takes for half the mass of a radioactive Element in a rock to break apart, pf decay in to other elements
Absolute Age The age of a rock in years, as determined by measuring the decay rate of it's radioactive elements
Era One of the long stretches of time in Earth's history: from the earliest Precambrian era, through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, to the current Cenozoic era.
Created by: 17htward51