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AP2 lab review

Notes from Endocrine, Blood and Cardiovascular System

When do the Ventricles contract? During Systole
When do the Ventricles relax? During Diastole
What is it called when one complete heartbeat occurs including atrial and ventricular contraction? Cardiac Cycle
When are the AV valves closed? During Ventricular Systole
What event within the heart causes the AV valves to open? Atrial and Ventricular pressure
When are the semilunar valves closed? During the period of relaxation of the heart as a whole and during atrial contraction
Is there any time when both valves are closed at the same time? Yes
When are both valves closed at the same time? Momentarily after atrial contraction and ventricular systole
Is there ever a time when both sets of valves are open? No
At what point of the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart at its highest? Ventricular systole
At what point of the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart at its lowest? Ventricular diastole
What is the normal length of the cardiac cycle? 0.8 seconds
What is the time interval of atrial systole? 0.1 seconds
What interval is the quiescent period, or pause? 0.4 seconds
What is the interval for ventricular contraction? 0.3 seconds
Sperm Pathway Testis -> Epididymus -> Vas deferens -> Seminal vesicles ->Urethra
located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus thyroid gland
found close to the kidney adrenal gland
a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine pancreas
paired glands suspended in the scrotum testes
Both the endocrine and nervous systems are major regulating systems of the body; however, the nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the pony express. Briefly explain this comparison. The nervous system uses rapidly propagated electrical “messages,” whereas endocrine system “messages” (hormones) are liberated into the blood to travel much more slowly to the target organs.
Define hormone A chemical substance liberated into the extracellular fluid that enters blood for transport throughout the body.
Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups steroids and amino acid–based molecules
Define target organ Organ responding to a particular hormone in a specific way
If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don’t all tissues respond to all hormones? The proper “hormone” receptors must be present on the plasma membrane or within the cells for the tissue cells to respond.
ride “horseback” on the thyroid gland parathyroids
found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production ovaries
found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth thymus
found in the roof of the third ventricle pineal gland
Hormones that regulate the function of another endocrine gland 1. FSH 2. LH 3. ACTH 4. TSH
Gland that regulate the function of another endocrine gland anterior pituitary
Maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid 1. aldosterone/adrenal cortex 2. ADH/hypothalamus
Directly involved in milk production and ejection 1. oxytocin/posterior 2. prolactin/anterior
Controls the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation 1. T3/T4/ thyroid
Regulates blood calcium levels 1. calcitonin/ thyroid 2. PTH/ parathyroid
Regulates blood glucose levels; produced by the same "mixed" gland 1. insulin 2. glucagon pancreas
Released in response to stressors 1. cortisol/ adrenal cortex 2. epinephrine/ adrenal medulla
Drives development of secondary sex characteristics in males 1. testosterone/ testis
Directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle 1. estrogen 2. progesterone ovaries
Although the pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland of the body, the hypothalamus exerts some control over the pituitary gland. How does the hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituitary functioning? Produces “releasing and inhibiting hormones,” which control the production and release of anterior pituitary hormones; forms hormones ADH and oxytocin, which are transported to the posterior pituitary and later released on nervous stimulation
parafollicular cells of the thyroid calcitonin
follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid T4/T3
Created by: lcotton2