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Europe and Russia

What is centrifugal force? A force that divides people and countries
What is centripetal force? A force that unites people and countries
What is a common market? A group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries
What is a supranational cooperation? A form of international cooperation in which countries give up some control of their affairs as they work together to achieve shared goals
How does a common market unite Europe? By allowing goods and workers to travel more freely across borders
How does creation of an EU trading bloc unite Europe? Allowing EU countries to have more power in the global economy than they would have individually
How do the differences between western and eastern nations divide the EU? Wealthier western European countries are concerned that so much money is being spent in central and eastern Europe. Some western Europeans also worry about losing jobs to other EU workers who are willing to work for less money
What divisions are created by the use of the euro? Some European nations refuse to adopt the euro. Also, the euro divides the EU into two groups: countries with economies stable enough to be allowed to adopt the euro and countries with less stable economies
How does the development of a supranational level of government unite Europe? Allowing it to work on issues that all Europeans share, like pollution. Also, the EU government strengthens Europe's voice in world affairs
How does the development of a European citizenship unite Europe? Citizens of member nations can live and work anywhere in the EU and vote in all EU elections
How does the desire of European countries to keep their independence divide Europe? Some European countries want to make their own decisions in areas like defense and foreign affairs, especially when they disagree with EU decision
How can the expansion of EU membership cause division? Cooperation becomes more difficult with more countries and cultures
How has the EU united Europe by promoting a common culture? Promoting a European cultural identity. This European identity is associated with cultural symbols such as the EU flag, the EU anthem, and Europe Day
How does the increased travel unite Europe? Unites Europe by allowing Europeans to begin to view Europe as one united region
Why do languages divide the EU? With more than 20 languages, communication can be difficult
What are some other forces that continue divisions among European countries? National pride and cultural traditions
What is the EU? Some countries of Europe that work together as a union. Operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental
What is demography? The study of human populations, including how they change due to births, deaths, aging, and migration
What is a dependency ratio? The number of old and young people who don't work compared with the working age population. The higher the ratio, the more young and old people the workers have to support
What is life expectancy? The average age to which a person in a given population can expect to live. Life expectancy varies from one country to another
What is replacement rate? The total fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself
What is total fertility rate? The average number of children a woman in a given population will have in her lifetime. This number is different in different countries
What are the 4 stages of the demographic transition model? Low population growth, rapid population growth, slow population growth, no or negative population growth
What causes a population to age? A rise in life expectancy, drop in birth rates, earlier baby boom
Why can population aging cause problems? As people age, their need for health care increases
What is acid rain? Rain that can damage the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke and car exhaust. Acid rain can damage plants, fish, animals, and even buildings
What is nuclear radiation? A form of energy that comes from nuclear reactions. Radiation has no smell or taste, but it can be very harmful to living things. Materials polluted with nuclear radiation are said to be radioactive
What is a river system? A river and all the streams that flow into it. The streams that flow into a river are called tributaries
What is transboundary pollution? Pollution that starts in one country and crosses boundaries into other countries. Generally, transboundary pollution is carried by wind or water
How did Chernobyl become a source of radioactive pollution? Its reactor had an explosion that released a radioactive cloud
What was one effect of the spread of radioactive pollution across borders? People living outside of Ukraine had their food and water contaminated by radiation
What helped reduce radioactive pollution and how? Reactor changes; Improved safety at nuclear plants like making plants easier to shut down in an emergency
When did the Black Triangle become a source of acid rain? When mixed with waters in lakes and rivers
What is one consequence of the spread of acid rain across borders? Destroys land or forest
What helps reduce acid rain and how? Decrease in use of coal; Using natural resources instead of polluting resources
When did accidental water pollution occur? When chemical spilled killing the stuff in the river
What is one consequence of the spread of water pollution across borders? Killing things that lived in the water
What helps reduce water pollution and how? Environmental programs; Cleaning up chemical spills
What is erosion? The gradual wearing away of Earth's surface by the action of wind, water, ice, and gravity
What is glaciation? The creation and movement of glaciers
What are physical processes? Natural forces that change Earth's physical features, including forces that build up and wear down Earth's surface
What is tectonic movement? The movement of plates below Earth's surface
What is volcanic activity? The formation and eruption of volcanoes
How does tectonic movement affect Earth? Tectonic plates move and collide to form both fault- block and fold mountains. Plate movement also creates earthquakes
How does erosion affect the landscape? Wind, water, ice, and gravity all erode the land. Rivers can erode the land to form valleys. Oceans can wear away land to form banks and cliffs. Glaciers can carve out valleys and create new landforms
How does volcanic activity affect Earth? Ash and lava from eruptions can cover Earth and bury people and buildings. Sometimes mudslides bury everything in their paths. Violent eruptions can create craters.
How does glaciation affect the landscape? Glaciers can grind rock into soil and push rocks and dirt great distances. They create lakes, pointed mountain peaks called "horns," and U-shaped valleys
What are two types of pollution created by people? Accidental pollution and general pollution
What has the EU done for economic cooperation across Europe? Reduced trade barriers
What causes glaciers to move? Gravity
What started pollution? Industrial revolution
What are the two most common causes of erosion? Wind and water
What is the Black Triangle doing to reduce acid rain? Installing smokestack scrubbers
What is human error? The cause of most work fails
What are the two types of glaciers? Alpine and continental glaciers
What happens if you have a small replacement rate? Population gets older and ages
What causes glaciers? Snow that has piled for many years
What causes tectonic movement? Intense heat at the earth's core
What causes volcanoes? Magma rising to the surface of the Earth causing bubbles of gas to appear
What is the ring of fire? Ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that result from subduction of oceanic plates beneath lighter continental plates
Created by: 1962116900