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How Genes Work

Yoon

TermDefinition
What is a polypeptide chain? a protein chain
What is the structure of a DNA molecule? double-stranded helix ladder
What are the 3 types of RNA? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What is a codon? a series of 3 nucleotides that code for amino acids
Which is longer: DNA or RNA? DNA
Is RNA double-stranded? no, single stranded
Where are nucleic acids found? in the nucleus, but the DNA can't leave it
What is the central dogma of genetics? RNA delivers instructions from the DNA to the proteins
What is the start codon? AUG, which codes for the amino acid, methiomine
What is the stop codon? UUA,UGA, UAG
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. DNA has two strands and RNA has one and Rna can leave the nucleus DNA can not
What is the structure of a nucleotide? The nucleotide in DNA consists of a sugar (deoxyribose), one of four bases (cytosine (C), thymine (T), adenine (A), guanine (G)), and a phosphate.also a double helix
What is the structure of a molecule of DNA? a double helix
Where is DNA found in the cell? in the nucleus
What does the cell make from the instructions in DNA? RNA
How is DNA copied? The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a template for the next strand. Bases are matched to synthesize the new partner strands.
When in the cell cycle does the cell make copies of DNA? the S phase or Synthesize
What are the complementary base pairs in DNA? guanine and cytosine , thymine and adenine
What are the three types of RNA? TRNA, RRNA and MRNA
What do tRNA molecules use their anticodons for? to decode the tRNA
What is a codon? Which molecule has codons, and what do they code for? A codon is a nitrogenous base pair. it is on the mRNA
What is the start codon? What is the stop codon? What amino acid does the start codon code for? A start codon is AUG and the stop codon is UAG UAA UGA. The start codes for met
Describe the relationships among the following terms: codon, amino acid, polypeptide chain An amino acid is described when you have a codon which a polypeptide chain chains the amino acids together.
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA dna has 2 strands while rna has one.
Using full sentences, describe the central dogma of genetics The central dogma of genetics goes as follows, 1 RNA makes a segment of mRNA * Transcription * then 2 the mRNA leaves the nucleus and 3 the ribosome uses the mRNA for protein making * Translation *
Created by: jillbill101