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GBio CH 6 Evolution

General Biology -Evolution

QuestionAnswer
what is a species? a group of organisms that share similar characteristics and can reproduce among themselves to produce fertile offspring.
what is evolution? change in acquired characteristics (the gene pool) over time.
Who hypothesized that traits developed during a person's lifetime can be passed down to offspring (like large muscles) Lamarck
Who is the father of evolution? Darwin
where did Charles Darwin do a lot of his studies? the galapagos islands
what types of organisms did charles darwin study? finches (birds), pigeons, tortoises, and others (he collected lots of fossils)
How did Darwin think each species of finch developed a different beak size and shape? from eating different foods - the most "fit" beak was the one that got passed on
what is natural selection the theory of how evolution works
what is another phrase meaning "natural selection" survival of the fittest
what is a theory in science? accepted fact backed by lots of evidenece
If you use your fingers to remember what things can cause evolution- what does your little finger represent? when populations shrink the gene pool changes because there are less alleles.
what is a gene pool? the amount of genes in a population
if you use your fingers to remember what things can cause evolution- what does your ring finger represent? non-random mating. Choosing a mate based on certain characteristics means that genes frequencies may change within a population.
if you use your fingers to remember what things can cause evolution- what does your middle finger represent? mutations- random mutations can create changes in the gene pool
what is the story of the rock pocket mouse? most mice used to be sandy like their environment. Their environment turned black and random mutation that made the mice FIT for their environment occurred and then was passed through the generations turning most mice on black background black.
what is the story of the peppered moth? most moths used to be peppered colored to blend in with the trees. The industrial revolution made pollution which turned the trees darker. A random mutation created a dark moth that was more FIT for its environment- thus the dark genes were passed down.
if you use your fingers to remember what things can cause evolution- what does your pointer finger represent? movement (gene flow) when individuals move from one area to another they bring (or take out) genes from that gene pool
if you use your fingers to remember what things can cause evolution- what does your thumb represent? good adaptations get passed on and bad adaptations do not (survival of the fittest)
what is variation? an inherited trait that makes and individual different from other members of its speices
what is an adaptation? a variation that makes an organism better suited to its environment
how did the grand canyon cause allopatric specation over time the canyon grew and isolated part of a squirrel population. As time passed the two groups became so different that they could no longer mate together.
can geography (landforms) cause new species to form? yes, if a species gets separated (like the squirrels in the grand canyon) for a long enough time they may evolve to be different species.
what is punctuated equilibrium? the idea that evolution occurs in rapid bursts (when there are new mutations) and in between those rapid bursts there are long periods without evolution.
what is gradualism? the idea that evolution occurs gradually over time.
which model of evolution is supported by the fossil record- punctuated equilibrium or gradualism? both
can evolution ever occur quickly? yes rock pocket mice evolved over 1000 years, bacteria can evolve in 3 years or less.
what is antibiotic resistance? when bacteria evolve and can resist being killed by antibiotics (aka the bacteria still make you sick even if you take an antibiotic)
what kind of rock do you find fossils in? sedimentary rock
is there fossil evidence that connects life in the water to life on land? yes, tikktalik (the fossil youtube video) we watched- is believed to have lived in water and on land
where do scientists believe life started- in water or on land? in water (the oceans)
what is relative dating of fossils? a way to tell how old a fossil is based on which layer of rock it is found in. Bottom layers are older than top layers.
what is radiometric dating of fossils? scientists measure and compare how much radioactive and nonradioactive elements are left in a rock to determine its age
what is a radioactive element? an element that gives off a steady amount of radiation over time that scientists can study. All rocks have radioactive elements.
is radioactive dating always accurate? no
What is embryology? studying embryos and comparing them to embryos of other organisms to see how closely related they are
What are homologous structures? structures that are similar in structure and provide evidence of recent common ancestry (aka the leg of a cat and the arm of a human)
What are vestigial structures? structures that exist in organisms but do not have a purpose today (aka wisdom teeth). They are used to see similarities among different organisms.
What do scientists use embryology, homologous structures and vestigial structures for? to support evolution and see how organisms evolved
what is a cladogram? a graph that shows how closely related organisms are in evolutionary history.
what is divergent evolution (also called adaptive radiation)? when one species evolves into MANY species in short period of time. Ex: dogs today descended from wolves
what is genetic drift? Chance events that affect the gene pool of small populations. Ex: hunting buffalo to near extinction greatly reduced the population and its gene pool.
what is speciation? the formation of a new species
what is convergent evolution when two unrelated species have common features due to a similar environment. Ex: a dolphin is a mammal and a shark is a fish but both have streamline bodies and fins for swimming
what is coevolution? when organisms evolve in response to one another. Ex: the newt kept getting more poisonous and the garter snake kept being able to handle the poison.
what is sympatric speciation? organisms living in the same area begin to occupy different niches and over time become separate species
Created by: ruth.baker