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Nutrition and Diet

Chapters 1-12

protein helps build and repair body tissue
malnutrition from eating too much and too little
low nutrition density foods are cookies, potato chips and candy
osteoporosis it is necessary that we have an adequate intake of calcium in order to help prevent bone degeneration
BUN is a test that can help analyze if we might have kidney failure
three-day food record the most common method of assessing a dietary history
diabetes is caused by an increase of obese
iron deficiency is most common in the US
scurvy is related to a vitamin C deficiency
lipid profile includes triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol
goiters is caused by a deficiency of iodine
eating a high protein diet is not necessarily beneficial
losing weight it is best to lose 1-2 pounds per week
hypertension can be linked to high intake of salt
weight gain can be prevented if that a person has at least 60 mins. of exercise each day
milk a fortified with vitamin D
regulation of food labeling became mandatory in 1994
food labels demand total carbs and cholesterol
low sodium a product must have a measurement of below 140 mg per serving
Chinese food is usually high in sodium
Jewish laws all food is called kosher when it is prepared
Jewish dietary laws according to Jewish laws meat and dairy products may not be eaten together
Some religions consider alcohol, tea and coffee harmful (mostly Mormons)
Ketoacidosis occurs when too little carbohydrate is consumed to provide energy
carbohydrates are changed to glucose before they are absorb.
insulin controls glucose metabolism
hyperglycemia another name for high blood sugar
carbohydrates provide the most energy for our bodies
bran is the outer covering of a grain kernel
B vitamins are mostly found in the germ
dextrose is another term for glucose
fruits and cereals are a good sources of carbohydrates
iron is sometimes added to grain products
potatoes are complex carbs
appetite is a psychological desire for food
water does not provide energy
osteoporosis is a deficiency of calcium and vitamin D that causes bones to become soft
we must eat food in order to obtain essential nutrients
Mediterranean diet does not contain much meat.
Japanese diet does not use milk
folic acid deficiency causes neural tube defects
Ketoacidosis can be fatal
diabetes is not the cause of obesity
carbs are the major source of energy
carbs provide 50% of the calories for people living in the US.
fat helps provide energy, protects organs and bones and is a carrier for fat-soluble vitamins
monounsaturated fats are good fats such as olive and canola oil
omega 3 fatty acids are a polyunsaturated fat
eggs, biscuits and shrimp contain cholesterol
we can control our diet and cholesterol by reducing saturated fats
fat digestion takes places in the small intestine
lipoproteins carry fats through the body
LDL is bad cholesterol
HDL is good cholesterol and we can increase this by exercise, diet and stop smoking
olives contain good fat
visible fat are fats we can see such as cooking oil
egg whites contain no fat and olive oil and avocados all contain good fat
animal organs contain cholesterol
vegans usually consume incomplete proteins
low protein diet can cause edema
pepsin is an enzyme secreted by the stomach that is essential for protein digestion
tofu is made from soy milk and not a high quality protien
new tissue is being formed such as during pregnancy a positive nitrogen balance occurs
PEM is long term protein energy malnutrition can cause physical and mental retardation
marasmus is a disease is caused by PEM and results in dry hair and thin skin
Kwashiorkor is a disease caused by PEM and results in skin lesions
severe burns causes negative nitrogen balance
corn and beans are considered complementary proteins
digestion begins in the mouth
complementary proteins must be consumed in the same day
lean body mass is heredity and climate can affect our BMR
BMR decreases as our lean body mass decreases
metabolism is the body's use of energy to conserve nutrients
BMR can increase by fever, pregnancy and lactation
lean body mass can decrease as we age
fats are present in animal and plant sources
monounsaturated fats lower our LDL
all animal sources are not high quality complete proteins
tofu is not a high quality protein
proteins are necessary for the development of antibodies and a healthy immune system
nutrients do not have to be in their most complex form to be absorbed
vitamins do not give us energy but enables our body to use energy
vitamins are essential for body processes
enriched or fortified means foods have been supplemented with vitamins
steaming vegetables help prevent loss of vitamin A, during cooking
rickets can result from a vitamin D deficiency
sunlight is the best source of vitamin D
liver damage can occur when we take to much vitamin A
green leafy vegetables are a good source of vitamin K
folate helps prevent neural tube defects
hypervitaminosis is the excess of one or more vitamins
milk, legumes, and egg yolks all contain biotin
retaining minerals in our food you need to cook in little water as possible
calcium and phosphorus help build strong bones and teeth
vitamin D helps us to absorb calcium
foods with vitamin C helps iron absorb
iodine is necessary for normal thyroid gland activity
lack of weigh bearing exercise can reduce the amount of calcium absorbed in the body
we have more calcium in our bodies than any other material
water constitutes between 50 & 60% of our body weight
kidneys help maintain electrolyte balance
dehydration can cause us to have low blood pressure, dry skin and fever
water is a solvent and we can only live between 10-14 days without water
calories we need to consume 1 mL for every one we consume
positive water balance can cause congestive heart failure
food enters the fundus of the stomach first
villi are in the small intestine and helps with absorption
peristalsis is contractions that move food along the GI tract
final chemical digestion of carbs occurs in the small intestines
cardiac sphincter is located at the lower end of the esophagus
pylorus is the end of the stomach nearest the small intestine
vitamin supplements do not need to be taken if we eat a balanced diet
vitamins found in our food are far superior to synthetic vitamins
mega doses of vitamins can be toxic
cardiac sphincter prevents acid from flowing back into the esophagus
digestion occurs in the entire GT tract
nutrients do not have to be in their complex form to be absorb
inner wall of the small intestine is smooth
bolos is a mouthful of food ready to be swallowed
acid reflux disease is caused by malfunction of the cardiac sphincter
underweight pregnant women should be between 28 and 40 pounds is a normal weight gain during pregnancy
vitamin A does not need to be increased during pregnancy
hyperemesis gravidarum is the condition when nausea persists and becomes so severe that it is life threatening
high-fiber foods can relieve constipation and hemorrhoids
heartburn can be relieved by eating small, frequent meals
Pica is the craving for nonfood substances such as starch or clay
fetal alcohol syndrome is the result of ingesting alcohol while pregnant
oxytocin is initiated by an infant sucking, which causes the ejection of milk into the infant's mouth
vitamin A in excess, can cause birth defects
pregnant adolescents are particularly prone to pregnancy-induced hypertension
caffeine can cause irritability in an infant from a nursing mother
infant meals should be scheduled to feed on demand
a baby's weight can double by the age of 6 months
burping helps to prevent regurgitation
infants under the age of 1year should avoid regular cow's milk because it is harder to digest than the mother's milk, can cause gastrointestinal blood loss, and is harder for the kidneys to filter
tooth decay may result when a baby is regularly put to bed with a bottle in its mouth
c. botulinum is a microorganism that have been known to contaminate honey
nuts should not be offered to babies
breast milk is the best food for premature infants
a good example of nutritious snack for a child under the age of 4 is cheese and crackers
adolescents typically prefer to imitate their peers
dietary habits, weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus is rarely seen before in children, is now being diagnosed in children as young as 10 years of age
treatment plans for people with anorexia nervosa is centered on providing family and individual counseling
alcoholism can cause accumulation of fat on the liver
marijuana can cause hunger for sweets
athletes need greater quantities of sodium and potassium
iron is needed throughout women's childbearing years in higher quantities
bone loss usually begins between the ages of 35 to 40
caloric requirement in adults usually begin to decrease after the age of 25
overweight is most commonly caused by an energy imbalance
as the body ages bone destiny and metabolism decrease
osteoporosis can cause a decrease in height
estrogen replacement therapy is a medical treatment for prevention of both osteoporosis and heart disease
calcium-rich foods and sufficient vitamin D by eating that everyday it is believed to reduce the chance of developing osteoporosis
excessive amounts of phosphorus can cause osteoporosis by speeding up bone loss
arthritis symptoms can be treated with regular aspirin for people who arthritis also needs additional iron
arthritis causes joints to be painful and stiff by causing structural changes in cartilage of the joints
hypertension is another term for high blood pressure
heart attack and stroke are the two major causes of death in the United States
plaque is a fatty substance containing cholesterol that accumulates in the walls of the artery
Geriatrics is the branch of medicine involved with the disease of the elderly
it is recommend that pregnant women should always drink 2 to 3 servings of fat-free milk
nausea is associated with pregnancy, or morning sickness, could be life-threating
smoking during pregnancy may affect the intellectual and behavior development of the fetus as it grows up
folate research has shown that a lack of an intake of this vitamin during pre-pregnancy may result in neural tube defects for the baby
when alcohol is ingested by a mother it enters the fetal blood stream in the same concentration as the mother's
kilocalorie decreases after the age of 35; however nutrient requirements do not
weight reduction is undertaken, the client should confirm with their physician that they are in good health
estrogen loss that occurs after menopause contributes to osteoporosis
economic changes occur that affects nutrition as people age
Created by: Bearlover