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CP Chap 10

DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis

QuestionAnswer
What is Griffith's experimental contribution? He learned that heat-killed harmful bacteria can transfer disease-causing ability to harmless bacteria (transformation). His experiments were done with mice.
What is Avery's experimental contribution? He found that DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria.
what is transformation? when genetic material is passed from one cell to another
What is the hershey and chase experiment? Studied bacteriophages. Used a blender to separate the protein and the DNA in phages. Found that DNA is responsible for hijacking bacteria and is thus the hereditary material in viruses.
Who is credited for discovering the shape of DNA? Watson and Crick
Who was an expert in x-ray diffraction and took pictures of DNA? Rosalind Franklin
What is photo 51? Franklin's picture of DNA that proved that DNA had a helix shape.
Why didn't Rosalind Franklin get the Nobel Prize She was dead before it was granted AND she wasn't given due credit for her work.
DNA is made of building blocks called... nucleotides
what are the parts of a nucleotide? phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base
what are the bases of DNA adenosine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
What holds the bases together? hydrogen bonds
what is a purine and a pyrimidine? a type of nitrogenous base. Purines are two-ringed structures and pyrimidines are one-ringed structures.
are the hydrogen bonds weak or strong? weak- we had tools to break them in class when we extracted strawberry DNA
Who is the scientist that found that A pairs with T and C with G? Chargaff
What does it mean to be a complementary base pair? it means A bonds with T and C bonds with G
what makes up the backbone of DNA? sugar and phosphate
what kind of sugar is in DNA? deoxyribose
what kind of sugar is in RNA? ribose
How is RNA different than DNA? 1. RNA is shorter, 2. RNA has U instead of T, 3. RNA is single stranded
Is this base sequence DNA or RNA: AUCGCUCG RNA
What is DNA replication? the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before it divides.
What enzyme is responsible for unzipping DNA? helicase
What do call the Y-shaped region of DNA that results when it is unzipped? the replication fork
Which enzyme adds nucleotides to build DNA during replication? DNA polymerase
What does it mean to say that DNA is semi conservative? When DNA replicates it has one old strand and gains one new strand
What is a mutation? a change in the DNA code (a change in the bases)
are all mutations bad? no some are not harmful or helpful and others can actually be beneficial.
What is the central dogma of biology? DNA to RNA to Protein
What is transcription? When mRNA is made from DNA's code
Where does transcription take place? in the nucleus
What enzyme completes transcription? RNA polymerase
What is translation? when mRNA is read to create a protein
where does translation take place? in the cytoplasm at a ribosome
what is rRNA? RNA that builds ribosomes
What is mRNA? messenger RNA that transcribes DNA's code
what is tRNA? transfer RNA - it transfers amino acids
which strand provides the code for amino acids? mRNA
what do you call a chain of amino acids? a polypeptide or a protein
what is the codon? the 3 mRNA letters
What is the anticodon? the 3 tRNA letters
in a prokaryotic cell which occurs first transcription or translation? both occur simultaneously
in a eukaryotic cell which occurs first transcription or translation transcription
what is the human genome project? the project that sequenced all the bases pairs of the human genome (all the DNA in a cell)
Created by: ruth.baker