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Micro 8-12

Gene transfer refers to the movement of genetic information between organisms
Recombination the combing of genes (DNA) from (2) different cells; the resulting cell is referred to as a recombinant
Vertical gene transfer when genes pass from parents to offspring (eukaryotic)
Lateral / horizontal gene transfer (bacteria)-when they pass genes to other microbes of their same generation
horizontal / lateral-Forms of transfer Transformation; Transduction; Conjugation
Eukaryotic Sexual Reproduction: Male & Female parents produce gametes (sex cells), which unite to form a zygote, the first cell of a new individual; Gamete Diversity
Prokaryotic Horizontal / Lateral
Naked DNA DNA that has been released from an organism. Often after the cell is lysed (ruptured), and the DNA is no longer incorporated into chromosomes or other structures (Pieces)
Competence factor In this stage, a protein is released into the medium and apparently facilitates the entry of DNA
Competent Cells can now take up DNA fragments
Bacteriophage (transduction) DNA are carried by these
Virulent phage Is capable of causing infection &, eventually, the destruction & death of a bacterial cell; Infection / death of a cell. This cycle results in lysis (rupture) of the infected (host) cell (called: lytic cycle)
Temperate phage Ordinarily does not cause a disruptive infection. Instead, the phage DNA is incorporated into a bacterium's DNA and is replicated w/ it
Lysogency persistence of prophage without phage replication and destruction of the bacterial cell (cells containing a prophage are said to be lysogenic-ticking time bomb)
Conjugation like transformation & transduction, genetic information if transferred from one bacterial cell to another; 1. It requires contact b/w donor and recipient cells; 2. It transfers much larger quantities of DNA (occasionally whole chromosomes)
Plasmids Are small extrachromosomal DNA molecules; Bacterial cells often contain several different plasmids that carry genetic information for various nonessential cell functions
(2) Types of F plasmid cells F+ (male / donor); F- (female / recipient)
F+ cells (fertile) Contain extrachromosomal DNA called F (fertility) plasmids
F- cells Lack (do not have) F plasmids
Promiscuous Plasmids can sometimes transfer into species other than their own kind
Transposition The ability of a genetic sequence to move from one location to another
Gene amplification Is a process by which plasmids, or in some cases bacteriophages, are induced to reproduce with cells at a rapid rate
Hybridomas Are often made by fusing an antibody-producing plasma cell and a cancer cell
Classification The grouping of related organisms together; 1. To establish the criteria for identifying organisms; 2. To arrange related organisms into groups; 3. To provide important information on how organisms evolved
Taxonomy Is the science of classification
Carolus Linnaeus Is credited w/ founding the science of taxonomy
Binomial nomenclature System that is still used today to name all living things
Strain Is a subgroup of a species w/ one or more characteristics that distinguish it from other subgroups of the same species
Dichotomous key Paired statements describing characteristics of organisms. Paired statements present an "either-or" choice, so that only one statement is true
Five Kingdom Classification System Kingdom Monera; Kingdom Protista; Kingdom Fungi; Kingdom Plantae; Kingdom Animalia
Viruses Are acellular infectious agents that are smaller than cells; They have not been assigned to a kingdom (non-living); Not included in binomial nomenclature scheme
Genetic homology Similarity of DNA
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) Method separates proteins based on molecular size; Protein profiles are produced by this
Ribosomes Serve as sites of protein synthesis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; ; Have evolved slowly; 16S
Obligate intracellular parasites Viruses that take over the host cell; Virus hi-jack's host cell & makes more virus
Nucleic acid core (virus) DNA or RNA, not both
Capsid (virus) Surrounding protein coat
Envelope (virus) Surrounding lipid bilayer membrane
Virion A complete virus particle, including its envelope, if it has one
Host range Refers to the spectrum of hosts that a virus can infect. Different viruses can infect bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, plant, vertebrates, or even invertebrates
Viral specificity Refers to the specific kinds of cells a virus can infect
ICTV International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses; meets every 4 years and establishes the rules for classifying viruses
Retroviruses Are enveloped viruses that have (2) complete copies of (+) sense RNA; HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus leads to AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Latency The ability to remain in host cells, usually in neurons, for long periods and to retain the ability to replicate
Latent period Spans from penetration up to the point of phage release
Bacterial lawn A layer of bacteria
Plaques Represent areas where viruses have lysed host cells; shows as clear areas
Lysogeny A stable, long-term relationship b/w the phage and its host in which the phage nucleic acid becomes incorporated into the host nucleic acid
Primary cell cultures Come directly from the animal and are not subcultured (in vitro)
Continuous cell line Consists of cells that will reproduce for an extended number of generations
HeLa cell line The most famous of (continuous cell line); Named after Henrietta Lacks; She died in 1951 of Cervical Cancer; Genome = isolated HPV
Teratogenesis Is the induction of defects during embryonic development
TORCH series These tests detect antibodies made against Toxoplasma (a protozoan), other disease-causing viruses (usually including the hepatitis B virus and the varicella, or chickenpox virus), rubella virus, CMV, and HSV
Oncogenes The proteins produced by tumor viruses that cause uncontrolled host cell division come from segments of DNA
Apicomplexans (or sporozoans) Are parasitic and immobile; associated w/ malaria; Enzymes present in groups (complexes) of organelles at the tips (apices) of their cells digest their way into host cells
Malaria In any given year it strikes up to 500 million people and claims the lives of 1.5 to 3 million a year, many of them are children; In Gambia, childhood mortality from this fell by an astonishing 63% after the introduction of these nets.
Sterilization The killing or removal of all microorganisms in a material or on an object
Disinfection The reduction of the number of pathogenic microorganisms to the point where they pose no danger of disease
Antiseptic A chemical agent that can safely be used externally on living tissue or destroy microorganisms or to inhibit their growth
Disinfectant A chemical agent used on inanimate objected to destroy microorganisms. Most do not kill spores
Sanitizer A chemical agent typically used on food-handling equipment and eating utensils to reduce bacterial numbers so as to meet public health standards. May refer to thorough washing w/ soap and detergent
Bacteriostatic agent An agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria
Germicide An agent capable of killing microbes rapidly; some such agents effectively kill certain microorganisms but only inhibit the growth of others
Bactericide An agent that kills bacteria; Most such agents do not kill spores
Viricide An agent that inactivates viruses
Fungicide An agent that kills fungi
Sporocide An agent that kills bacterial endospores or fungal spores
Binomial (two-name) system - (first name) Designates the GENUS of an organism, and its first letter IS capitalized
Binomial (two-name) system - (second name) Is the SPECIFIC EPITHET, and it is NOT capitalized, even when derived from the person who discovered it
Binomial (two-name) system - (both names) Together the genus and specific epithet identify the SPECIES to which the organism belongs; Both words are italicized in print but underlined when handwritten; When there is no danger of confusion, the genus name may be abbreviated to a single letter.
Envelopes (advantages) Envelopes help viruses infect new cells by fusion of the envelope w/ the host's cell or plasma membrane
Envelopes (disadvantages) Environmental conditions that destroy membranes: increased temperatures, freezing and thawing, pH below 6 or above 8, lipid solvents, and some chemical disinfectants such as chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and phenol – will also destroy the envelope.
Virology Is a scientific field of study, is only about 100 years old
Virus Families (distinguished by) First on the basis of their: nucleic acid type; capsid symmetry (shape); envelope; size
Plaque assay The viral assay method that is used
Three (3) human viruses Cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 & 2, and rubella- account for a large number of teratogenic effects
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections Are found in about 1% of live births; of those, about 1 in 10 eventually die from the CMV infection; Most of the defects are neurological, and the children have varying degrees of mental retardation
The Control of Microbial Growth A definite proportion of the organisms die in a given time interval; The fewer organisms present, the shorter the time needed to achieve sterility; Microorganisms differ in their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents
Bactericidal Kills Bacteria
Bacteriostatic Inhibits the growth of bacteria
Denaturation Alterations to a protein structure
Lyophilization Freeze-drying; is the drying of material from the frozen state
Catalase (Biochemical Test) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is poured over heavy growth of an organism on an agar slant; release of O2 gas bubbles indicates this presence, which oxidizes H2O2 to H2O & O2.
Oxidase (Biochemical Test) 2 or 3 drops (or a disk) of this test reagent are added to an organism growing on an agar plate; a color change of the test reagent to blue, purple, or black indicates the presence of cytochrome oxidase.
Genome (component) Function: Carries the genetic information necessary for replication of new phage particles.
Tail Sheath (component) Retracts so that the genome can move from the head into the host cell's cytoplasm.
Plate and tail fibers (component) Attach phage to specific receptors sites on the cell wall of a susceptible host bacterium.
Created by: jenilee80