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Genes & Heredity-1

Genes & Heredity (Part 1 of 2)

TermDefinition
GREGOR MENDEL First scientist to discover the laws of genetics Through his work with pea plants
HEREDITY Sum of characteristics based on genes Inherited from one's ancestors (Parent to Offspring)
GENE Part of the chromosome Determines a specific trait(s) Occupies a fixed position on the chromosome
ALLELES Two genes Determine Trait of Organism
HETEROZYGOUS Two DIFFERENT genes for the same trait (Bb) ONE dominant “B” and ONE recessive “b”
HOMOZYGOUS BOTH genes of a trait are the same i.e., PP or pp
Law of INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Each trait determined independently
DOMINANT TRAIT Genetic trait Present in either allele Appears in the individual (offspring) Written as capital letter “B”
RECESSIVE TRAIT Genetic trait IF BOTH parents contribute—Appears in the offspring IF ONE parent contributes —does not appear; dominant trait shown Written as lower case letter “b” May appear in later generations
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE Dominant trait does not totally mask a recessive trait Both genes are expressed/appear i.e.,- a blue eye gene and a brown eye gene may produce green eyes
GENOTYPE Genetic make-up Showing both alleles governing a trait i.e., Blood Type
PHENOTYPE Way an organism appears Can be observed (seen)
Created by: pj johnson