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Cells & Cellular-2

Cells & Cellular Processes (Part 2 of 2)

TermDefinition
HOMEOSTASIS Cell’s ability to maintain stable (balanced) internal conditions i.e., Our body will sweat to maintain a stable body temperature
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Movement from HIGH to LOW concentration WITHOUT use of energy
DIFFUSION Passive Transport EQUALLY distributed either side of membrane
OSMOSIS Passive Transport DILUTED coming through membrane
ACTIVE TRANSPORT Movement from LOW to HIGH concentration; REQUIRES use of energy
ENDOCYTOSIS Active Transport BRINGS material into the cell
EXOCYTOSIS Active Transport Occurs when material EXITS from the cell
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Chemical process in the chloroplasts Light converts carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into carbohydrates releasing oxygen 6CO2 + 6H20 + Light Energy YIELDS C6H12O6 + 6O2
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Aerobic Process in the mitochondria Uses oxygen to break down glucose into usable energy Reverse of photosynthesis C6H12O6 + 6O2 Yields 6CO2 + 6H20
FERMENTATION Anaerobic process Some cells obtain energy without oxygen i.e., Muscles carry out “lactic acid” fermentation
BINARY FISSION ASEXUAL Reproduction Occurs in Prokaryotic (bacteria) Cells SINGLE (bacteria) cell splits to form 2 cells
MITOSIS ASEXUAL Reproduction Occurs in Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus copies its chromosomes Cell division process for ALL cells EXCEPT sex cells
MEIOSIS SEXUAL Reproduction Occurs in Eukaryotic Cells Sex cells divide in half (allowing for genetic variation) Produces sperm and eggs for sexual reproduction
PATHOGENS Disease causing agents i.e., Bacteria; Virus
BACTERIA Unicellular micro- organisms Free Living organisms or parasites that is a disease causing agent i.e., ear or bladder infections
VIRUS Infects Living Cells and Needs Host to Reproduce It is a disease causing agent that uses Cell Parts to copy itself to reproduce i.e., Flu; Swine Flu; H1N1 Virus
ANTIBIOTICS Powerful medicines Used by the body to fight bacterial infections (i.e., ear or bladder infection)
VACCINES Prepared from killed or weakened pathogens Used to produce acquired immunity (i.e., flu shot)
ANTIBODY (ANTIBODIES) Used by body to destroy pathogens (disease causing agents) Form to produce immunity
IMMUNITY May be inherited, acquired, or induced Helps body to resist specific pathogens
WAYS CELLS GAIN ENERY THROUGH Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Fermentation
Created by: pj johnson