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Chap 10 All

Bio Vocab

Virulent Describes a microorganism or virus that causes disease and that is highly infectious.
Transformation The transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another.
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria.
Nucleotide In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
Deoxyribose A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides.
Nitrogenous Base An organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA.
Purine A nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine.
Pyrimidine A nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil.
Base-Pairing Rules The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
Complementary Base Pair The nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine.
Base Sequence The order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA.
DNA Replication The process of making a copy of DNA.
Helicase An enzyme that separates DNA strands.
Replication Fork A Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated.
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
Semi-Conservative Replication In each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new.
Mutation A change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Transcription The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Translation The portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
Protein Synthesis The formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.
Ribose A five-carbon sugar present in RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) An organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) An RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation.
RNA Polymerase An enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Promoter A nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
Termination Signal A specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene.
Genetic Code The rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Codon In DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Anticodon A region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA.
Genome The complete genetic material contained in an individual.
Created by: Sadrian18