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Bella N5 Unit 2

The need for Transport

Vascular bundle transport tissue in plants, made up of xylem and phloem
Transpiration the movement of water from roots to being lost from leaves
Evaporation Liquid water changes to water vapour
Stomata holes in leaves where water is lost by evaporation and gas exchange takes place. Made of guard cells and stoma.
Guard cells control the opening and closing of the stoma (photosynthetic)
Stoma the hole where gas exchange takes place
Palisade mesophyll main photosynthetic cells in a leaf, large cells arranged at top of leaf to collect the most light
Spongy mesophyll photosynthetic cells found below palisade mesophyll in leaf, surrounded by air spaces
Leaf vein contains xylem and phloem, used to transport water to the leaf and sugars away
Upper epidermis upper surface of leaf, transparent cells to allow light through to photosynthetic cells
Lower epidermis lower surface of leaf, contains the stomata
Waxy cuticle waterproof layer on top of leaf
Root hairs increase surface area for water absorption in the soil
Xylem transport tissue for water and minerals from the soil. Dead, hollow tubes thickened with spirals of lignin. Common name is wood.
Phloem transport tissue for sugar. Sieve tube attached to companion cell.
Lignin provides support to Xylem
Sieve cell part of phloem vessel, perforated end walls of column of cells allows cytoplasm to flow between containing the dissolved sugar.
Companion cell part of the phloem vessel, connected to sieve tube, controls the cell, allowing it to live even though it has no nucleus
Oxygenated blood that contains oxygen
Deoxygenated blood that contains little oxygen
Artery blood vessel that carries blood at high pressure. Has thick muscular walls to withstand the pressure and goes away from the heart.
Capillary exchange vessel for gases, food and waste. Walls one cell thick, large surface area, good transport system.
Vein blood vessel that carries blood at low pressure back to the heart. To prevent back flow of blood contains non-return valves
Heart muscular pump that circulates the blood in the body
Right atrium collects deoxygenated blood returning from the body
Left atrium collects oxygenated blood returning from the lungs
Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood through aorta to body
Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through pulmonary artery to lungs
Heart valves found between atrium and ventricle and between ventricle and artery. Prevent backflow of blood.
Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to lungs to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen
Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs, back to the heart (left atrium)
Aorta main artery carrying oxygenated blood to body from the heart (left ventricle)
Vena cava carries deoxygenated blood back from body to heart (right atrium)
Coronary arteries carries oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
Red blood cell biconcave disc shaped cell, used to transport oxygen. Has no nucleus.
Blood nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried in this liquid. Mainly made up of plasma, RBCs, WBCs and platelets.
Biconcave disc RBC shape, inward curve on both sides of the cell gives a very large surface area to volume ratio
Haemoglobin protein that combines with oxygen in red blood cells
Oxyhaemoglobin complex formed when haemoglobin binds to oxygen
Alveoli small air sacs in the lungs that are the site of gas exchange in the lungs
Mucus (in airways) traps dirt and germs that are breathed in
Cilia (in trachea) small hairs that sweep mucus to the back of the throat where it is then swallowed
Trachea windpipe – takes air from the mouth to the main branches for the lungs (bronchi)
Diffusion movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Bronchus first branch at the base of the trachea
Rings of cartilage hold open the trachea and bronchi
Digestive system breaks down large insoluble molecules to small soluble molecules for absorption in small intestine
Respiratory system moves air in and out of the lungs and carries out gas exchange
Cardiovascular system circulates blood round the body, made up of the heart and transport vessels
Peristalsis rhythmical movement of circular muscles to push food through the digestive system
Villi functional sub-unit of the small intestine. Good surface for diffusion; thin walls, large surface area, moist and good transport system.
Small intestine digestion is completed here and the products of digestion are absorbed
Lacteal carries the products of fat digestion (fatty acids and glycerol) to the lymphatic system
Created by: nscobie