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carmens pharm exam2

Antiviral Agents Treats virus other than HIV (chickenpox, shingles, herpes, influenza) *impairs viral replication
Acyclovir (Zovirax) Antiviral agent *treats herpes *not curative, episodes may recur
Tamiflu Antiviral *Influenza A &B *Start within 2 days of symptom onset *Tx. BID for 5 days
Antiretroviral *used to treat HIV * reduces viral concentration
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy *combination drug therapy
Zidovudine (AZT) (Retrovir) Antiretroviral (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor) (NRTI's) - improves T-cell counts - suppresses bone marrow
Indinavir (Crixavan) Antiretroviral (Pretease Inhibitors) (PI's) * increase CD4 cell count * risk or kidney stones, keep hydrated
Enfurirtide (Fuzeon) Antiretroviral (Fusion Inhibitor) * used in combination with other drugs * injectable, causes pain at injection site
T-cells (T-Lymphocytes) white blood cells (CD4 & CD8)
CD4 Counts & Percentages - lab test to see how well the antiviral is working & to monitor the immune system *below 200-250 or below 15% = increased risk for infection
Tx. requirements for Tuberculosis *compliance ESSENTIAL *6-12 months on drugs * 2-7 concurrent medications *Tx. of those living close or exposed
Isoniozid (INH) TB Drug - cidal/inhibits cell wall synthesis - side effects (numbess & tingling)
Rifampin (Rifadin) TB Drug - inhibits RNA synthesis - colors/stains secretions reddish/orange
Mycosis fungal infection *usually occurs in immunocompromised
Amphotericin B Antifungal Systemic Tx. *treats aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candida, coccidomycoses *horrible side effects, pre medicate
Nystatin (Nystat) Antifungal Superficial Tx. *vagina, skin, mouth *topical, oral suspension, lozenge, vag supp., topical cream *Oral suspension - swish 2 min
Chloroquine (Aralen) Antimalarial *parasitic infections
Metronidazole (Flagyl) Antiprotozoal ambicidal drug *causes metallic taste in mouth & dark colored urine *Toxoplasmosis = from cat feces
Antihelmintics very specific to specific worm *Dx. of exact worm is very important for correct Tx.
SNS Stim - Pupils Dilate
SNS Stim - Salvation Decreases
SNS Stim - Bronchi Dilate
SNS Stim - Heart Rate Increases
SNS Stim - GI Motility Decreases
SNS Stim - Bladder Detuser Contracts
SNS Stim - Urinary sphincter Contracts
SNS Stim - Glucose releases from liver Stimulated
SNS Stim - Insulin Release Increase or Decrease
SNS Stim - Uterus muscle contracts & relaxes
PSNS Stim - Pupils Constrict
PSNs Stim - Salvation Increases
PSNS Stim - Bronchi Contricts
PSNS Stim - Heart Rate Decreases
PSNS Stim - GI Motility Increases
PSNS Stim - Bladder Detuser Contracts
PSNS Stim - Urinary Sphincter Relaxes
Alpha 1 - Postsynaptic cells of SNS - Found in many organs, especially vascular smooth muscle - Vasoconstriction - Decreases secretions, decreases GI motility, urinary sphincter contracts, pregnant uterus contracts/relaxes, male sex organ - ejaculation)
Alpha 2 - Presynaptic nerve endings of SNS - Found in many organs, especially vascular smooth muscle - Vasodilation - Decreases secretions, decreases GI motility, urinary sphincter contracts, pregnant uterus contracts/relaxes, male sex organ - ejaculation
Beta 1 -Postsyanaptic cells of SNS - heart & kidneys - increases contractibility - Increases heart rate - Increases conduction - Increases renin release
Beta 2 - Postsynaptic cells of SNS - Resp. Tract, Liver, Muscle, Uterus - Bronchodilation - Vessel Dilation
Beta 3 - Adipose tissue, Gallbladder, Urinary Bladder - Brown Fat Tissue - Increased Fatty acid in blood - Regulate body weight - relaxes bladder muscle
Inotrope drug that affects cardiac contractibility (strengths & weakens)
Chromotrope drug that affects cardiac rate (speeds & slows)
Dromotrope drug that affects speed of AV conduction (speeds & slows)
Indications for Stimulating the SNS (Sympathomimetics) *Bronchodilators for asthma & related resp. conditions * Mydriatics in open angle glaucoma * Decongestants for nasal congestion * Opthalmics for ocular congestion * Cardiac medications for heart failure
Epinephrine Sympathomimetic Direct Acting -> Alphas & Beta 1 & 2 - Indications - Bronchoconstriction, COPD, Asthma, Analphyaxis - Side Effects - SNS stim, anxiety, angina, MI *Use caution with hypertension, EKG monitor & vitals q3-5 min
Anaphylaxis Tx. Epinephrine (EpiPen) *thigh should be used for injection *held in place for 5-10 seconds *Emergency care obtained ASAP *Single use injection
Norepinephrine (Levophed) Sympathomimetics Direct Acting -> Alphas & Betas 1 Indications - Hypotension Side Effects - SNS stim, extravasation, necrosis *Caution with hypertension, EKG monitor & vitals q3-5 min
Dobutamine (Dobutrex) Sympathomimetics Vasoactive Pressor -> Beta 1 Indications - cardiac decompression, hypotension Side Effects - SNS Stim, ventricular ectopy, increased cardiac output, angina *caution with hypertension, EKG monitor & q3-5 min vitals
Indications to BLOCK the SNS Alpha Receptors - headaches - women in labor - hypertensive clients - pts with IV drug extravasation
Phentolamine (Regitine) Alpha Blocker - dilates arterioles, decreases BP, Increases cardiac output Indications - Extravasation of vasodilators, Dx & Tx of pheochromocytoma *monitor vitals, watch urine output, EKG
Indications to BLOCK the SNS Beta Receptors - Angina, post MI, atrial/ventricular tacyarrthymias, hypertension, CHF - headaches - glaucoma
Propranolol (Inderal) Beta Blocker (blocks Beta 1 & 2) Indications - Angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, prevention of MI Side Effects -decrease heart rate, bronchoconstriction, fatigue, weakness, decreases BP, wheezing, decreases libido * oral & IV, take @ same time Qday
Created by: cbeauvais