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• Network – two or more computers connected together – so they can communicate with each other – share resources (software: MS Office applications or hardware: printers, fax machines, storage devices) – exchange information (transfer data from one computer to
• Client/server model – most popular form of network. individual computers and devices interact with one another through a central server
– Client – an individual computer connected to a network
– Server – a computer that manages network resources
– Node – an individual computer or other device connected to a network
• Local area network (LAN) – a group of computers connected in a small geographic area (campus, home, business) – The organization owns & manages all network components
• Wide area network (WAN) – a collection LANs that are linked together. – span a wide geographic area – The organization leases some of the components needed connect those networks together (high-speed telephone lines or wireless transmission equipment)
• Internet – a vast network of LANs and WANs that electronically connects millions of people worldwide
• World Wide Web – a set of software programs that enables users to access resources on the Internet via hypertext documents, or Web pages
• Web page – a document created in HTML containing hypertext links that, when clicked, enable users to access a different location or document
• Web site – a collection of related Web pages
• Web browser – a software application that enables users to easily access, view and navigate Web pages on the Internet
– Protocol – (rules for how we communicate and interact on the internet) an agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices
– Packet a fixed piece of information sent across a network
– TCP/IP – software that makes Internet communication possible
• Internet Service Provider (ISP) – an organization that provides access to the Internet
• Computers access information from the Internet as follows: – You request data from an Internet server – The request is divided into packets – The packets are routed from your LAN to the Internet backbone – The packets are routed from the Internet backbone to the destination server – The destination server
• Six elements are required to connect to the Internet: – Computer – PC, smartphone, tablet, etc. – Operating system – Windows, Apple, Linux/Unix – TCP/IP – protocol to communicate w/ Internet – Client software – Web Browser, mobile app, e-mail application – Internet connection - direct through an ISP
• Internet Service Provider (ISP) – an organization that provides access to the Internet
• Dial-up Internet connections: – Standard telephone lines and analog modem (rural areas)
• Direct Internet connections: – High-speed data links , Wireless connections, T and E carriers (big companies, international), LAN connections (local/ regional businesses), Cable modems (Brighthouse), Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) , 4G mobile hotspot (cell phones)
• Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) – supports 32-bit dotted quad IP address format – Most widely used version of IP – Approximately 4 billion possible IP addresses
• Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) – supports 128-bit hexadecimal address format
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – used to transfer Web pages from a Web server to a Web client (Web browser)
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) – used to access a secure Web server
• File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – used to transfer files between computers on the Internet
– Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) – used to transfer e-mail messages to others with an outgoing mail server
– Post Office Protocol (POP) – used to receive e-mail from an incoming mail server
– Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) – used to receive e-mail from an incoming mail server
– Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) – used by news servers to exchange newsgroup articles
• Newsgroup – a group of messages about a particular subject that is posted to a central Internet site (news server) and redistributed through Usenet
• Usenet – a public-access worldwide network
• Domain Name System (DNS) – resolves IP addresses into easily recognizable names
• com – commercial site
• CIWcertified – registered company domain name
• www – Web server name at company
• com – commercial or company sites
• edu educational institutions, typically universities
• org – organizations; originally clubs, associations and non-profit groups; currently, various types of organizations
• mil – U.S. military
• gov – U.S. civilian government
• net – network sites, including ISPs
• int – international organizations (rarely used)
• Domain name server – a server on the Internet that resolves domain names into IP addresses
• Reverse DNS – – the process of resolving IP addresses into domain names
• Virtual domain – a hosting service that allows a company to host its domain name on a third-party ISP server
• Shared domain – a hosting service that allows multiple entities to share portions of the same domain name
• Crowdsourcing – outsourcing a task to an undefined group of people or community to obtain and analyze large amounts of data
• Cloud computing – a paradigm in which users access software and services remotely over the Internet
– Software as a Service (SaaS) – another name for cloud computing
– Grid computing – – a cluster of multiple, remote systems that are used to create a single solution
– Advantages to cloud computing: • Flexibility • Scalability • Cost reduction
Created by: spearaylall
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