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Ch. 10

Section 4: Protein Synthesis

TermDefinition
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Transcription DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA
Translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
Protein Synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Ribose a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) part of the structure if ribosome
Transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein
RNA Polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA on a DNA template, binds to a protein
Promoter a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
Termination Signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
Genetic Code the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
Codon in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
Anticodon a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
Genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual
Created by: McLeanE18