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Chapter 8 Assessment

Review over the three sections in Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Geologists estimate that the Earth is ________ years old 4.6 Billion
The principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes is called_______ Uniformitarism
Layers of rock, called _______, show the sequence of events that took p;lace in the past. Strata
Even though all three classes of rock can form layers, the ones most commonly studied are ________ Sedimentary
The boundary between 2 beds of rock is called a _______ Bedding plane
The principle that a sedimentary rock layer is older than the one above it is called the law of _______ Superposition
The principle that a fault or intrusion is younger than the layers it cuts through is called the law of ________ Crosscutting Realationships
The absolute age of a rock layer is its _________ age Numeric
Using the rate of ________ to determine absolute age would be less accurate for a surface feature such a s the Grand Canyon which is millions of years old. Erosion
In general, about 30cm of of sedimentary rock are _______ over a period of 1,000 years. Deposited
Some sedimentary rock layers show annual layers called _________ Varves
Which layer (summer or winter) is composed of darker finer grains? Winter
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called ________ Isotopes
The original radioactive isotope is called the _________ isotope Parent
The half-life is the time required for half of a radioactive sample to break down by decay to form the _______ isotope Daughter
What is the half-life of Uranium-238? 4.5 billion years
The ages of wood, bones, shells and other organic remains embedded in rock can be determined through _________ dating Carbon
The scientific study of fossils is called _________ Paleontology
Some insects become fossilized in hardened tree sap called __________ Amber
Organisms buried in ________ do not decay, because bacteria does not survive in such low temperatures Ice
When minerals in groundwater percolate through buried organic matter, the result is a nearly perfect mineral replica of the object. This process is called _________ (Hint: it often happens to wood) Petrification
A fossil residue of a leaf that makes a "shadow" on sedimentary rock is called a _______ Carbon film
Fossilized dung or waste from an animal is called a _________ Caprolite
The stones from the digestive tracts of dinosaurs are called _________ Gastroliths
Fossilized tracks, borings, or burrows are called ________ fossils Trace
Fossils that occur only in rock layers of a particular geologic age are called _________ fossils Index
Geologists also use these fossils (most previous question) to locate deposits of ________ Oil or Natural gas
Created by: emmathompson88