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Vertebrate Zoology

Origins of Tetrapods

Transitional Form: Eusthenopteron All fish; Lobed fins; Two dorsal fins
Transitional Form: Tiktaalik Fishpod; With no operculum which is the connection between the neck and head, allowing for better movement; Jointed pectoral fins; Retain fin rays
Transitional Form: Ichthyostega Tetrapods; With Robust limbs with digits, robust ribs, only scaled bellies
Pros of Land Lower competition for resources and more resources; Escape seas predation; Access atmospheric oxygen as sole source allows specialization on anatomies so less energy cost and more compacity to reach O2; Air is easier to move through than water
Cons of Land Gravity has a much greater affect on the body on land because there is not 360 water support; Gills collapse in air as they are thin slices whereas lungs are balloons
Reproduction of Tetrapods New egg membranes including the Amnion surrounding embryo, the chorion around everything, and the allantois to handle waste; New shells; Internal fertilization necessary
Respiration of Tetrapod Anamniotes Ventilated by positive pressure with a buccal pump where the mouth opens, air goes in, glottis opens, air goes out; Requires muscles and skeleton similar to gills; Only as much air as mouth is large is allowed
Respiration of Tetrapod Amniotes Coastal pump where muscles with ribs expand cavity for negative pressure for passive air flow; Single breath can fill lungs
Water Conservation of Tetrapods Lost by evaporation and waste; Urinary bladder maybe as a water storage; Layer of dead skin with oil to prevent water loss; Anamniotes have cutaneous respiration
Temperature Control of Tetrapods Unstable environmental temperature so behavioral or biological controls of internal environmental temperature; Low thermal conductivity environment; Huge energy costs
Sensory of Tetrapods Vision has eyelids and lacrimal glands for protection and moistened cornea; Hearing and lateral line mostly in fluid in inner ears; Chemoreceptors like taste and smell need moist interfaces to dissolve chemicals
Feeding of Tetrapods Neck allows head movements; Tongue allows positioning and capturing of prey; Salivary glands to lubricate food and moisten sensory receptors
Created by: LionsandGiants