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CIW~Exam

Lesson 10 IT Projects and Project Management

TermDefinition
• Project management – applying knowledge, skills and processes to specific activities in order to meet deadlines and achieve desired results
• Project – a sequence of tasks that must be accomplished within a certain time frame to achieve a desired result
• Task – a unit of work during a project
• Resource – a person, department or device needed to accomplish a task
• Assignment – the appointment of a specific resource to a specific task
• Scope – the goals and tasks of a project, and the work required to complete them
• Scope creep – gradual increases in project scope that occur in small increments over time • A common problem in most projects because not all factors can be accounted for at the beginning of a project
• Initiating phase o Conduct needs analysis o Determine objectives (goals), assumptions (?) and constraints (money, time, scope, resources) o Create Statement Of Work (SOW)
• Planning phase o Develop project schedule o Assemble project team
• Executing phase o Perform project tasks
• Controlling phase (happens with executing phase) o Monitor progress and take corrective action as needed
• Closing phase o Evaluate schedule, budget, scope, resources and assignments (happens when customers is completely satisfied, “yeah, but…) o Formal acceptance of project deliverable
• Schedule information includes: – A project start date – A project calendar – Tasks and task durations – Project resources and their costs
• Use software to: – Track project progress and status – Save plans of successful projects
• Paper trail • Documents which team members worked on what task, and when they started and completed them
• Issues log • Documents and monitors problems that need to be escalated to managers or executives outside the project team for resolution
• During the executing and controlling phases: – Schedule meetings with team members to monitor progress – Schedule meetings with stakeholders and management around milestones to review project status – Avoid scope creep by managing requests and changes at regular intervals
• Intranet – an internal or in-house Web site used only by employees within a company
• Extranet – an internal network designed to provide access to selected external users; is not available to the Internet public
• Webinars and Web conferences – online training or conference sessions that utilize Internet technology to provide interactive and presentation elements to users
• Webcasts – audio/video Web events that are distributed over the Internet
• Voice conferencing – the traditional way to connect groups and individuals via telephone conference calls
• During the closing phase: – Test the product – Client evaluates and accepts/rejects project deliverable – Evaluate performances – Review performances of team members – Document lessons learned – Review what went well, what did not, and what could be done differently to i
• Quality Assurance - Three techniques to ensure quality:
– Separation of duties – project teamwork in which team members review the work of another team member and vice versa
– ISO 9000 standards – international benchmark for systemizing processes to help organizations produce products and services that meet government regulations and the quality standards set by customers
– Six Sigma methodology – seeks to identify and eliminate the causes of defects and errors in manufacturing and business processes in an effort to reach near-perfection
– Organizational rules and policies – IT projects are bound by the rules and policies that govern the organization
– IT professionals have the right to: • Acquire the necessary tools to accomplish their tasks • Receive clear, detailed objectives and instructions so they can produce the proper deliverables
– IT professionals have the responsibility to: • Provide services in a timely, cost-effective, secure manner • Keep workflow interruptions and system downtime to a minimum
– Effects of IT projects on productivity • IT projects and decisions impact employee productivity because they affect systems that employees use to do their jobs
– IT project Return On Investment (ROI) – IT project managers must determine the risk and value of each project to justify which projects to preserve and which projects to eliminate
• Project Management Institute – Non-profit member organization that publishes standards and offers education regarding the project management profession
• Project Management Professional (PMP) – – certification for project managers
• Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) – nine topic areas that define project management
– Program management – the process of managing multiple interdependent projects to improve the performance of an organization
– Program management consists of: • Benefits management • Stakeholder management • Program governance
– Program management life cycle – five phases that define the activities and events that occur from the beginning of a program through to its conclusion
Created by: spearaylall