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Latin 2015

TermDefinition
A.D./anno Domini "in the year of the Lord," designating the time period after Christ's birth
A.M./ante meridiem "before midday
Achilles' heel a weakness
ad infinitum "to infinity," to continue forever, without limit
ad nauseam to the point of sickness
Aegean Sea sea to the west of Greece; named after King Aegeus after he drowned himself in the sea thinking his son Theseus was dead
agenda things that must be done
agora/forum market place/business center;(forum center part of rome
ambrosia and nectar food and drink of the gods
Aphrodite/Venus (form of the sea)goddess of love and beauty
Apollo/Apollo god of the sun, light, reason, and the lyre,music,medicine,punishment,pladge
apple of discord something that causes strife. It was the fruit thrown by the goddess Eris/Discord into the marriage of Peleus and Thetis because she wasn't invited. It was inscribed "for the fairest goddess" and Hera/Juno, Athena/Minerva, Aphrodite/Venus famously fought
aqueduct a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley
Arachne fear of spider;challenged Athena to a weaving contest and was turned into a spider for her excessive pride
Ares/Mars Greek/Roman names of the god of war and bloodshed.
Ariadne the daughter of king Minos of Crete, who helped Theseus escape from the labyrinth after he killed the minotaur
Artemis/Diana Greek/Roman names of goddess of the hunt, moon, woods. Twin sister of Apollo.
Athena/Minerva Greek/Roman names of the goddess of wisdom, strategy, handicrafts. daughter of Metis and Zeus/Jupiter who swallowed her before her birth, fearing her strength. She was born from Zeus' skull, fully armed and grown. Favored Odysseus and Greece in the Trojan
Athens/Acropolis a polis (city
Atlas The Titan who holds the world upon his shoulders
atrium the first major room in roman house
Augustus Caesar
Caesar Julius caesar
carpe diem seize the day
Carthage City located in present
cave canem beware of the dog
Cerberus A three
Chaos a state of disorganized matter from which the gods and the world were created
Charon The ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased to the Underworld.
Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus
Colosseum A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place
consul In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government
cornucopia "horn of plenty" a symbol of food and abundance
Cronus/Saturn one of the 12 Titans, father of Zeus/Jupiter, who swallowed his children in an attempt to keep from being overthrown
Cyclops (Greek mythology) one of a race of giants having a single eye in the middle of their forehead
Delphic Oracle ancient temple sites to Apollo where a Sibyl (priestess of Apollo) would issue vague prophecies to those seeking guidance.
Demeter/Ceres goddess of grain, the harvest, and the seasons; mother of Persephone/Proserpina
Dionysus/Bacchus god of wine and revelry; son of Zeus and Semele
e pluribus unum One from many
e.g./exempli gratia "for the sake of an example"
ego I, myself
Elysian Fields/Elysium place of blessed after death
epic long poem about a hero
Eros/Cupid god of love and desire; son of Aphrodite
Et tu, Brute? "and you, Brutus?" famous last words of Julius Caesar as the Senate members assassinated him; Brutus was supposed to be a friend of his, but had a hand in the killing
etc./et cetera "and the rest"
ex libris from the books of
fates The three Parcae visualized as the three women spinning the thread of human life. These figures ultimitely control the destiny of mortals
finis end or boundary.
fresco/mosaic literally "cool, fresh" painting done on drying plaster
furies avenging spirits
gladiator a swordsman
Golden Fleece The fleece of the gold
Gorgons 3 monstrous sisters with snakes for hair and eyes that turned all to stone
Hades/Pluto god of the Underworld/Tartarus
Hannibal Carthaginian general who attacked Italy by crossing the Italian Alps in the 2nd Punic War; he was eventually defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Zama
Hector Trojan, supreme commander of Trojan forces, eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, husband of Andromache, father of Astyanax and killed by Achilles.
Helen Wife of Menelaus, Queen of Sparta
Hephaestus/Vulcan the god of the fire. Born to Hera, he was hated by Zeus and cast from Mt. Olympus resulting in deformities.
Hera/Juno the goddess of marriage, childbirth, family. She is the wife and sister of Zeus and famously suffered his many infidelities badly.
Heracles/Hercules the greatest hero in mythology. Hated by Hera, offspring of Zeus and Alcmene. Performed a series of 12 labors to serve King Eurystheus. Eventually deified.
Hermes/Mercury the messenger god; god of thieves and travelers; son of Zeus; invented the lyre; escorted people to the Underworld when they died(Eng:merchant)
Hestia/Vesta goddess of the hearth
Homer Ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
I, V, X, L, C, D, M roman numerals for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000
i.e./id est ."that is"
Icarus and Daedalus father and son held prisoner, escaped using feathered wings but icarus doesn't listen and dies flying to close to the sun
Ides of March 15th of March. day Caesar was assassinated. Now it means a day of reckoning.
Iliad a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
Jason Famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
Jove, jovial happy name that came from Jupiter (married, cheery)
labyrinth a complicated network of winding passages; a maze
M.D./Medicinae Doctor The degree earned by someone who completes medical school. A doctor of medicine as opposed to PhD (doctor of philosophy).
marathon a 26 mile running event. Named for the city of Marathon in Greece. Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia which happened in that city. Legend has it that he dropped dead upon giving the news.
mea culpa My fault, I am guilty
Minotaur Man
Mt. Olympus home of the Greek gods; highest mountain in Greece
Mt. Vesuvius ancient volcano
muses the 9 goddesses who looked after the arts and inspired men in those arts (poetry, history, drama, etc.)
Nike goddess of victory
Odysseus/Ulysses a great Greek hero of the Trojan war. Favored by Athena.
Odyssey a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
Orpheus and Eurydice Orpheus, a celebrated Greek poet, enchanted with his lyre wild beasts, trees, and even rocks. When his wife Eurydice died, he was able, with the charm of his music, to enter Hades and bring her back, only to lose her again when he gazed back.
P.M./post meridiem "after midday," afternoon
P.S./post scriptum writing after the body of a letter
Pandora out of her curiosity, she opened a box containing all the bad things in the world; she put the lid on just in time, so that hope did not escape from the box, too
Pantheon a temple to all the gods
papyrus paper made from the papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing it flat
Paris Son of Priam, king of Troy. Probably the best
Parthenon Athena's temple
paterfamilias male dominance in the family
Pax Romana 200 year period of peace in Rome.
Pegasus winged horse which flew from the neck of Medusa the Gorgon after Perseus cut off her head
Penelope Wife of Odysseus, Mother of Telemachus;universal symbol of fidelity
Persephone/Proserpina daughter of Demeter;queen of the underworld;Pluto's wife
Perseus and Medusa this person kills this monster who turns people to stone when looking at them
Pompeii Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
Poseidon/Neptune god of the sea; favors seafaring peoples; helped build the walls of Troy
post mortem after death
Prometheus the Titan who stole fire from Olympus and gave it to mankind(普罗米修斯)
quid pro quo "something for something," a fair trade
Romulus and Remus founders of rome;753 BC(VERY IMPORTANT DATE)
semper fidelis always faithful
semper paratus always prepared
Spartacus a gladiator who lead a slave revolt
Styx River in the Underworld by which the Gods swear binding oaths
sub poenā under penalty/punishment
summa cum laude with highest praise
Tantalus chef of the gods. Tricked them into eating human flesh by killing and cooking his son Pelops. Only demeter ate it, distracted by her grief over Persephone. Was punished with eternal hunger and thirst in Hades.
Tartarus the Underworld; in early mythology, everyone went to Tartarus after they died; in later mythology, only bad people went to Tartarus after they died
tempus fugit time flies
terra firma solid ground
terra incognita unknown territory/land
Theseus Athenian prince who killed the Minotaur(as 14 sacrifices);He falls in love with Minotaur's daughter.
Tiber Tiber River
Titans the first gods; children of Gaea (12 of them)
toga a one
Trojan Horse a large hollow wooden figure of a horse (filled with Greek soldiers) left by the Greeks outside Troy during the Trojan War
Troy kingdom in Asia Minor that fought against Greece in Homer's Iliad
Uranus the god of the sky; created the Titans with Gaia, Mother Earth
valedictorian "the one who says farewell"
veni, vidi, vici I came, I saw, I conquered
veto to forbid
vs./versus against
via Road, way
Zeus/Jupiter the king of the gods; god of thunder and lightning
Created by: clarafayy