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Principles I Test 2


Which volatile agent is known for rapid induction and awakening? sevoflurane
Which volatile agent can react with CO2 absorbent and produce compound A? sevoflurane
Which volatile agent has a low boiling point (22.8C/73F)? desflurane
Because ________ has a low boiling point what is different about the vaporizer for this agent? desflurane; it is heated, requires electricity, & uses different method than other vaporizers
Which volatile agent can cause tachycardia and be an irritant to the airway? desflurane
Which volatile agent provides better hemodynamic stability than its precursor Halothane? sevoflurane
Which volatile agent has such a rapid elimination that it results in fast awakening? desflurane
Which volatile agent was once considered the "gold standard" of inhalation agents, especially for neurosurgery? isoflurane
Which volatile agent can cause coronary artery steal syndrome? isoflurane
Which volatile agent causes significant peripheral vasodilation & possibly hypotension? isoflurane (greater effect than sevo & des)
Which volatile agent used to be the inhaled anesthetic of choice, but is rarely seen now? halothane
Which agent sensitizes the myocardium to dysrhythmias? halothane (especially in combination with catecholamines, epi, and local anesthetics
Which inhalational gas is NOT a volatile anesthetic? nitrous oxide
This gas is used to supplement inhalation agents nitrous oxide
This is the only inhalation agent with with sympathomymetic activity (small atropine like reaction) nitrous oxide
This gas causes diffusion hypoxia nitrous oxide
This gas easily diffuses into air filled spaces and is contraindicated in tympanoplasaties? nitrous oxide
What is a vaporizer? a device for converting a volatile anesthetic into a breathable vapor
Where are the vaporizers located on the anesthesia machine? between the flow meters and the common gas outlet
Rank the 3 most commonly used volatile agents in terms of quickest awakening to slower awakening time. Desflurane --> Sevoflurane --> Isoflurane
All current vaporizers are _______ specific agent
Define vapor gaseous molecules from a substance that is liquid at room temperature and at 1 atm (760 mmHg)
Different liquids vaporize at _________ rates different
An increase in temperature means a(n) ____________ in vaporization increase
An increase in vaporization means a(n) ___________ in the temperature of the liquid below decrease
A decrease in temperature means a(n) ____________ in vaporization decrease
Define vapor pressure equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its liquid or solid in a closed container
When an equilibrium in vapor and liquid is met, the anesthetic is said to be at its _________________ at that specific temperature saturated vapor pressure
Increased temperature means ______________ vapor pressure increased
Vapor pressure is dependent only on which 2 factors? the agent itself and the temperature (NOT atmospheric pressure)
Because vapor pressure is dependent on temperature, newer variable bypass vaporizers compensate for temperature changes with a ____________ bimetallic rod
Define boiling point the temperature at which vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
Decreased atmospheric pressure (high altitude) = ___________ boiling point decreased
Define latent heat of vaporization calories needed to convert 1 gram of liquid to vapor without temperature change in the remaining liquid
Define specific heat calories needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
Vaporizers are constructed with what kind of materials to minimize temperature changes associated with vaporization? high specific heat materials
Define MAC alveolar concentration that prevents movement in 50% of patients in response to surgical stimuli
What does MAC mirror? partial pressure in the brain
What is MAC used for? comparing agent potencies, experimental standard; it is a median value and it has limited usefulness due to patient variability
Are MAC values additive? yes
What are the only situations in which you would see a copper kettle (Vernitrol) used? military or on the mission field
What is the copper kettle's method of vaporization? measured flow; meaning, the amount of gas going into the vaporizer determines how much agent is going to come out on the other side
What is the method of temperature compensation of a copper kettle vaporizer? manual; the operator carries a chart which dictates how to change the flows to compensate for the temperature
Define splitting ratio carrier gas/total gas
How many flowmeters does the operator control in a copper kettle system? 2
Why is copper the metal of choice for the Vernitrol vaporizer? high specific heat & high thermal conductivity
What is the variable bypass vaporizer's method of vaporization? flow over; vaporizer intrinsically controls how much of the fresh gas flow is directed into the vaporizing chamber based on % set by operator
What 2 structures within a variable bypass vaporizer ensure saturated vapor? wicks and baffles
The bimetallic rod in variable bypass vaporizers directs _____ of the carrier gas into the chamber with cooler temperatures. more
When the operator increases the % of volatile agent desired while using a variable bypass vaporizer, the vaporizer _________ the flow of gas coming into the vaporizing chamber to make this concentration possible. increases
Why is it important to NOT tip over a variable bypass vaporizer? do not want to alter the saturation of wicks & baffles; this could throw off internal calibration & result in giving pt more or less volatile agent than desired
Electronic Tec 6 vaporizers are used with which volatile agent only? desflurane
What is the Tec 6 vaporizer's method of vaporization? Gas/vapor blender; operator selects desired amount and vaporizer adds correct amount of vapor to fresh gas flow; gas does NOT enter vaporizer
In the Tec 6, what are the vapor output's 2 control points? 1. setting the concentration on the dial; 2. sensor that detects fresh gas flow & accounts for this, blending proper amount of vapor for amount of gas flow
Can a Tec 6 vaporizer be refilled while it is still on, or does it have to be turned off? yes; can be refilled while on
How does the Tec 6 compensate for temperature change? it doesn't have to compensate because it has its own heat source (its electric)
Why was the Tec 6 designed with a heat source? Desflurane's boiling point is so low that the vaporizer would freeze if heat were not put into the system
Although not FDA required, what are the colors associated with each volatile agent? Sevoflurane = yellow; Isoflurane(Forane) = purple; Desflurane = blue
What is a safety mechanism of vaporizers that prevents filling a vaporizer with the wrong agent? keyed fillers
Why is the filling port on vaporizers set low? to prevent interference with inner workings of wicks and baffles
What is the interlock exclusion system designed to prevent? more than one vaporizer being on; allows only one on at a time
Created by: Mary Beth