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Chapter 7 Medical Terminology

Adeno(o) Gland
Carcin(o) Cancer
Cardi(o) Heart
Cyt(o) Cell
Derma(to) Skin
Enter(o) Small Intestine
Gastr(o) Stomach
Gyne(co) Female
Hema(to) Blood
Hydr(o) Water
Necr(o) Death
Somat(o) Body
Path(o) Disease
Nulli- None
Hemi- Half
Semi- Partial
Uni- or Mono- One
Bi- Two
Poly- or Multi- Many
Tri- Three
Quad- or Tetra- Four
A- or An- Without
Ante- Before or in front of
Anti- Against
Brady- Slow
Con- Together or with
Dys- Painful or difficulty
Epi- Above or upon
Eu- Normal
Hyper- Above or over
Hypo- Under or below
Inter- Between
Intra- Within
Macro- Large
Micro- Small
Neo- New
Par- or Para- Equal; pair, beyond, alongside
Per- Through
Peri- Around
Post- After
Pre- Before
Pseudo- False
Retro- Backward, behind
Sub- Below, under
Supra- or Super- Above, over
Tachy- Fast, rapid
-ac, -al, -an, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ile, -ior, -ory, -ose, -ous, -tic Pertaining to
-algia Pain
-cise Cut
-cyte Cell
-ectasis Dilation
-ectomy Surgical removal of
-genic Produces, produced by
-gram Picture or recording
-graphy Process of recording
-ia State, condition
-iasis Abnormal condition
-ism State of
-itis Inflammation of
-ology Study of
-ostomy Surgically created opening
-lysis Destruction, break down
-megaly Enlargement
-meter Instrument for measuring
-metry Process of measuring
-oma Tumor, mass
-osis Abnormal condition
-otomy Cutting into
-pathy Disease
-plasia or -plasm Growth or formation
-plasty Surgical repair of
-rrhage Excessive or abnormal flow
-rrhea Discharge or flow
-sclerosis Hardening
-scope Instrument for viewing
-stenosis Narrowing
-trophy Development
-a add e, -ax for -aces, -en for -ina, -ex/ix for -ices, -is for -es, -ma add ta, -nx for -nges, -on for -ena, -us for -era or -i, -um for -a,-y for -ies Plural form of root word
Abduction Movement away from midline
Adduction Movement toward the midline
Anterior Toward the front
Apex Tip of a structure
Base Lower part of a structure
Caudal Toward the tail (end of vertebrae)
Cephalad Toward the head
Deep Toward the inside of the body
Distal Away from the midline or other point of reference
Dorsal Toward the back (posterior)
Extension Straightening a joint to move the two parts further apart
Flexion Bending a joint to bring the two parts closer together
Inferior Below
Lateral Toward the side (away from the midline)
Medial Toward the midline or middle
Midline Vertical line dividing the body into equal left and right sides
Posterior Toward the back (dorsal)
Prone Lying face down
Proximal Near the midline or point of reference
Superficial Toward the outer surface of the body
Superior Above
Supine Lying on the posterior aspect of the body (on the spine)
Ventral Toward the front (anterior)
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint
Arthroscopy Procedure to view the inside of a joint with a special instrument
Cervical Pertaining to the neck
Myeloid Pertaining to bone marrow
Osteoporosis Porous bones
Orthopedics Branch of medicine specializing in treating disorders of the musculoskeletal system
Angiogram X-ray recording (image) of the blood vessels
Cardiologist Physician specializing in treatment of disorders of the heart
Pericardium Sac around the heart
Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein
Thrombosis Condition of blood clotting
Vasodilation Dilation of the blood vessels
Erythrocyte Red (blood) cell
Exsanguination Condition of blood outside the body (bleeding)
Fibrinolytic Substance that breaks down fibrin; a substance in blood clots
Leukocytosis Condition of too many white blood cells
Lymphadenopathy Disease (in this case, swelling) of the lymph glands
Apnea Absence of breathing
Bronchoconstriction Narrowing of the bronchioles, as in asthma
Dyspnea Sensation of difficulty breathing
Hypercapnia High levels of carbon dioxide
Hypoxia Low levels of oxygen
Oropharyngeal Pertaining to the oral cavity and throat
Pneumothorax Air within the chest cavity, but outside the lung (collapsed lung)
Pulmonologist Physician who specializes in disorders of the lungs
Anorexia Absence of appetite
Bariatric Pertaining to a patient's weight (obesity)
Cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder
Laparotomy Surgical incision into the abdomen
Hematemesis Vomiting blood
Polyphagia Excessive eating/swallowing
Analgesia Absence of pain
Anesthesia Absence of sensation
Ataxia Absence of coordination
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Hemiparesis Weakness on one side of the body
Meningitis Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Neuropathy Nerve disease/disorder
Quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremities
a before
c with line over it with (cum)
NTG Nitroglycerin
O2 Oxygen
OB Obstetrics
P after (pm = afternoon)
PE Pulmonary Embolism or Physical Exam
PO Orally, by mouth
Pt Patient
q every
QID Four times a day
R/O Rule out
Rx Prescription
s with a line over it Without (sine)
s/s Signs/symptoms
SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome
SL Sublingual
SOB Shortness of breath
stat immediately
Sx Symptoms
TIA Transient ischemic attack
TID Three times a day
TKO To keep open
Tx Treatment
X Times
y/o Year old
Arrow up Increase
Arrow down Decrease
AA African American
A Asian
B Black
CC Chief Complaint
c/o Complaining of
CHS Current health status
DOB Date of birth
DD or DDX Differential diagnosis
EDC Estimated date of confinement
FH Family history
Circle with a cross at the bottom Female
Hx History
H&P History and physical
HPI or HOPI History of present illness
IMP Impression
Circle with an arrow pointing up Male
Med Medications
NB Newborn
PH or PMH Past (medical) history
PMD or PCP Personal medical doctor or personal care physician
VS Vital signs
Wt Weight
Abd Abdomen
CV Cardiovascular
CNS Central nervous system
ENT Ears, nose, throat
GI Gastrointestinal
GU Genitourinary
GYN Gynecological
HEENT Head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat
M/S Musculoskeletal
PNS Peripheral nervous system
Resp Respiratory
CP Chest pain
DOE Dyspnea on exertion
FUO Fever of unknown origin
GSW Gunshot wound
H/A Headache
LBP Lower back pain
n/v Nausea/vomiting
NAD No apparent distress
pn Pain
sscp Substernal chest pain
AAA Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Ab Abortion
AMI Acute myocardial infarction
ARDS Adult respiratory distress syndrome
ETOH Alcohol
ASHD Atherosclerotic heart disease
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CRF Chronic renal failure
CABG Coronary artery bypass graft
CAD Coronary artery disease
CF Cystic fibrosis
DOA Dead on arrival
DTs Delirium tremens
DVT Deep vein thrombosis
DM Diabetes mellitus
D&C Dilation and curettage
DU Duodenal ulcer
ESRD End-stage renal disease
ESRF End-stage renal failure
EBV Epstein-barr virus
FBO Foreign body obstruction
HBV Hepatitis B virus
HH Hiatal hernia
HTN Hypertension
ID Infectious disease
IWMI Inferior wall myocardial infarction
IDDM Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
ICP Intracranial pressure
MCI Mass casualty incident
MVP Mitral valve prolapse
MVC Motor vehicle crash
MS Multiple sclerosis
NIDDM Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
OBS Organic brain syndrome
OM Otitis media
OD Overdose
PND Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PID Pelvic inflammatory disease
PUD Peptic ulcer disease
G/P Pregnancy/births (gravida/para)
PIH Pregnancy-induced hypertension
RHD Rheumatic heart disease
STI Sexually transmitted infection
STEMI ST elevation myocardial infarction
TB Tuberculosis
URI Upper respiratory infection
UTI Urinary tract infection
WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
ACE Angiotensin-converting enzymes
ASA Aspirin
HCO3- Bicarbonate
BCP Birth control pills
Ca++ Calcium
CCB Calcium channel blocker
CaCl2 Calcium chloride
Cl- Chloride
Dig Digoxin
DPH Dilantin (phenytoin sodium)
DPHM Diphenhydramine
DPT Diptheria-pertussis-tetanus
HCTZ Hydrochlorothiazide
LR or RL Lactated ringer's or ringer's lactate
NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrug
NS Normal saline
OBCP Oral birth control pills
PCN Penicillin
PB Phenobarbital
K+ Potassium
NaHCO2 Sodium bicarconate
NaCl Sodium chloride
APAP Tylenol (acetaminophen)
AC Antecubital
AAL Anterior axillary line
ACL Anterior cruciate ligament
A/P Anterior/posterior
DP Dorsalis pedis (pulse)
GB Gallbladder
ICS Intercostal space
LCL Lateral collateral ligament
LLL Left lower lobe
LLQ Left lower quadrant
LV Left ventricle
LSK Liver, spleen, and kidneys
LN Lymph node
MAL Midaxillary line
PAL Posterior axillary line
RLL Right lower lobe
RLQ Right lower quadrant
RML Right middle lobe
RUL Right upper lobe
RUQ Right upper quadrant
LUL Left upper lobe
LUQ Left upper quadrant
TMJ Temporomandibular joint
TM Tympanic membrane
ABG Arterial blood gases
BBS Bilateral breath sounds
BGL Blood glucose level
BS Breath sounds
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
CXR Chest x-ray
CBC Complete blood count
CT Computer tomography
CAO Conscious, alert, and oriented
CVA Cerebral vascular accident or costovertebral angle
DTR Deep tendon reflex
ECG or EKG Electrocardiogram
EEG Electroencephalogram
Exp Expiratory
EOMI Extraocular movements (intact)
FHT Fetal heart tones
FROM Full range of motion
FTND Full-term normal delivery
HR Heart rate
HS Heart sounds
Hgb Hemoglobin
Insp Inspiratory
JVD Jugular vein distention
lac Laceration
LOC level of consciousness
LOR Level of responsiveness
MAEW Moves all extremities well
NT Nontender
NROM Normal range of motion
Palp Palpation
PROM Passive range of motion
PMI Point of maximal impulse
PT Posterior tibial (pulse)
P Pulse
PEARL Pupils equal and reactive to light
PERRLA Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
ROM Range of motion
R Respirations
T Temperature
unc Unconsciousness
UI Urinary incontinence
p with line over it After (post-)
pc After eating
A/O Alert and oriented
ant. Anterior
Two wavy lines Approximate
prn as needed
a with a line over it Before (ante-)
a.c. Before eating (ante cibum, before meal)
BSA Body surface area (%)
degreeC Celsius
Triangle Change
= Equal
degreeF Fahrenheit
inf. Inferior
< Less than
mod. Moderate
> More than
- Negative
0 with line diagnally No, not, none
n/a Not applicable
No or # Number
occ Occasional
pk/yrs or p/y packs per year
/ Per
+ Positive
post. Posterior
PO Postoperative
PTA Prior to arrival
Arrow to right Radiates to
R in circle Right
L in square Left
2degree Secondary to
sup. Superior
= with diagonal line through it Unequal
W/D Warm and dry
WA While awake
WNL Within normal limits
0 Zero
ACLS Advanced cardiac life support
ALS Advanced life support
AMA Against medical advice
AED Automated external defibrillator
BVM Bag-valve mask
BLS Basic life support
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure
DNR Do not resuscitate
ETT Endotracheal tube
ETA Estimated time of arrival
ECP External cardiac pacing
IPPV Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation
LSB Long spine board
NC nasal cannula
NG Nasogastric
NPA Nasopharyngeal airway
NTR No transport - refusal
NRM Nonrebreather mask
NPO Nothing by mouth
OPA Oropharyngeal airway
psi Per square inch
PT Physical therapy
PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure
SSB Short spine board
TOT Turned over to
VO Verbal orders
cm centimeter
cc Cubic centimeter (should be mL)
dL Deciliter
gtt(s) Drop(s)
gtts/min Drops per minute
gr Grain
g or gm Gram
h or hr Hour
pH Hydrogen-ion concentration
IC Intracardiac
IM Intramuscular
IO Intraosseous
IV Intravenous
IVP Intravenous push
j Joules
KVO Keep vein open
kg Kilogram
L Liter
lpm or L/min Liter per minute
mcg microgram
mEq milliequivalent
mg milligram
mL milliliter
mm millimeter
mmHg millimeter of mercury
min minute
SC or SQ Subcutaneous
SL Sublingual
AF or A-Fib Atrial fibrillation
VF or V-Fib Ventricular fibrillation
VT or V-Tach Ventricular tachycardia
Created by: EMSPlatypus



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