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OCHS Bio - Unit 5

Unit 5 - Cellular Energy

Vocab WordAnswer (from textbook)Helper/Anchor Phrase
autotroph organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer "auto" = self; "troph" = feeder; "self feeder"; all plants and some microorganisms are autotrophs
heterotroph organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer "hetero" = other; "troph" = feeder; "other feeder"; all animals and fungi are heterotrophs
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) compound used by cells to store and release energy cell energy; remove a phosphate (ADP) to release the energy
enzyme protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions enzymes speed up reactions
active site the locations on enzymes where substrates can bind "lock and key" model; substrates are the molecules either being built up into something bigger or broken down in a chemical reaction
photosynthesis process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) --> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen)
chloroplast organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy organelle that lets plants do photosynthesis
chlorophyll principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms "chloro" = green
light-dependent reactions (photolysis) set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and break down water 1st step of photosynthesis; breaks down water to get some of the pieces needed to make a sugar
light-independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin Cycle 2nd step of photosynthesis; step in which sugar is actually made
cellular respiration process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) --> 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water)
mitochondria cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use (ATP) the "powerhouse" of the cell; makes ATP (cell energy)
glycolysis first set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid happens in all organisms in the cytoplasm; starts the breakdown of sugar to get a little bit of energy (ATP)
Krebs Cycle second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions happens in the mitochondria; keeps breaking a sugar down into CO2
electron transport chain series of reactions that move high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions these reactions require oxygen (which is why we have to breathe it);
anaerobic respiration (fermentation) process that releases energy, but does NOT require oxygen example: lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
Created by: nickbudz