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chapter 3 vocab

matter all material that has mass and occupies space
atoms basic units of matter
Element chemical substance with a given set of properties that can't be broken down into substances with other properties
compound substance composed of atoms of 2+ different elements
hydrocarbons organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
solution mixture in which all the ingredients are evenly distributed
macro-molecules proteins
proteins polymers that serve many functions in organisms
nucleic acids macro-molecules that direct protein production
carbohydrates polymers that consist of atoms of carbon
lipids chemically diverse group of macro-molecules that are classified together because they do not dissolve in water
pH describes the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
feedback loop cyclical process
negative feedback loop output of a system moving in one direction acts as input that causes the system to move in the other direction.
positive feedback loop opposite of negative feedback loops
erosion the removal of soil by water, wind, ice, or gravity
geosphere made of all the rock at and below Earth's surface
lithosphere the hard rock on and just below Earth's surface (outermost layer of the geosphere)
biosphere consists of all the planet's living or once
atmosphere consists if the layers of gases surrounding our planet
hydrosphere encompasses all water
crust thin layer of relatively cool rock that forms Earth's outer skin both on dry land and in the ocean
mantle a layer of very hot but mostly solid rock
core located beneath the lower mantle
Earth's outer core is made of molten metals
Earth's inner core is a dense ball of solid metal
tectonic plates large plates of lithosphere, dragged along when the asthenosphere moves
landforms features such as mountains, islands, and continents, caused by the collisions and separations of plates
deposition the depositing of eroded soil at a new location
evaporation conversion of a substance from a liquid to a gas
transpiration release of water vapor by plants through their leaves
precipitation how the water returns from the atmosphere to Earth's surface, in form of rain or snow
condensation a change in state from a gas to a liquid
aquifers layers of rock and soil that hold groundwater, underground reservoirs, or storage area
groundwater fresh water found underground
law of conservation of matter principle that says matter may be transformed from one type to another, but it can't be created or destroyed
nutrients matter that organisms require for their life processes
macronutrients nutrients required in large amounts
micronutrients nutrients needed in small amounts
biogeochemical cycles nutrient cycles, in which nutrients circle endlessly throughout the environment
primary producers organisms that produce their own food (plants, algae)
photosynthesis how most producers make their own food, by using the sun's energy. Producers pull carbon dioxide out of the environment and combine it with water in the presence of sunlight.
consumers organisms that eat other organisms to get nutrients
decomposers organisms that break down waste and dead organisms (bacteria/fungi)
cellular respiration process by which organisms use oxygen to release the chemical energy of sugars and release CO2, and water. Opposite of photosynthesis
eutrophication the addition of phosphorus in bodies of water can lead to an extreme overgrowth of producers. Can also lead to extremely low levels of oxygen in a body of water
nitrogen fixation conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia, only van happen by the intense energy of a lightning strike, or by nitrogen
Created by: 100004314692780
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