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Criminal Just, Ch, 3

Chapt. 3 Explaining Crime

*Classical Theory View that people exercise free will and are thus responsible for their actions
*Criminological Theory The explanation of criminal behavior as well as the behavior of all other actors in the criminal justice system
What is the principle of Utility The only justified rationale for laws and punishment is the goal of the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number of society
What is a Social Contract An imaginary agreement by the people that they sacrifice the minimum amount of liberty to prevent anarchy and chaos.
Beccaria believed in Specific Deterrence. What is the concept under this? The punishment will prevent the criminal from committing crime again
What is General Deterrence The punishment of the individual will deter the people from committing crime
What is the NeoClassical Theory Acknowledges that certain factors, like insanity, might inhibit free will
What is the Biological Theory of crime causation? Concept that criminals behave differently because structurally, they are different due to biochemical and environmental factors.
What is Biological Inferiority? The factors that cause the criminal to behave differently makes that person biologically inferior to the non-criminal.
*What is Criminal Anthropology? The study of criminals
Atavist A person who reverts to savagry
Limbic System Structure surrounding the brain stem that controls body functions but also moderates expressions of rage, violence, anger, fear, and sexual urge.
What is the concept behind Freud's description of Psychopaths aka sociopaths Their behavior is based on some prior unresolved issue of guilt for which they were neither caught nor punished
What is is Anomie The individual is not a part of the collective conscience
Collective Conscience The general sense of what is moral for that period in time.
What is the theory of the Chicago School from the University of Chicago Sociologists of the 1920's believed that social disorganization led to delinquent behavior
Social Disorganization Condition in which the usual controls over delinquents are largely absent. (Ex. jobs, parenting, encouragement, training)
What is concept behind the Strain aka Anomie Theory Legitimate means to achieve the cultural goal of wealth are limited due to the social structure. This creates a strain on the individual especially in the lower class.
Imitation aka modeling Social behavior including criminal acts are learned
What is the theory of Differential Association (one of the most recent theories of crime causation) View that criminal behavior is learned aka role model. Persons who become criminal do so because of contact with criminals and no contact with non criminals.
What is Learning Theory? Theory that explains Criminal Behavior/Prevention as a concept of Positive or Negative reinforcement, Extinction, Punishment, or Modeling.
Describe the concept of Positive Reinforcement The presentation of a reward to stimulate or maintain a desired response.
Describe the concept of Negative Reinforcement Removal or reduction of a reward whose removal will stimulate a desired response. AKA Aversive stimulus (like pain or fear).
Define Extinction as a concept of criminal behavior Removal of the reward. Behavior that used to be positively reinforced no longer is done so. Ex. Burglar who keeps coming up empty handed.
Define punishment as a concept of Criminal Justice Punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus reduce a response.
What is the concept of the Social Control Theorist Unless properly socialized or prevented from doing so, people are expected to commit crime.
Name 4 theories discussed in Chpt 3 that attempt to explain crime Strain, Differential Association, and Social Control, Labeling
What does Labeling Theory focus on The criminalization process. The way people and actions are defined as crime
What is the concept of Conflict Theory Theory assumes that society is based on conflict between competing interest groups and the criminal justice system is used by the dominant group to control the subordinate group.
Per the Conflict Theory model, crime is caused by the inability of the of the subordinate group to to gain power. AKA _________ ___________. Relative Powerlessness
Power Differential The ability of some groups to dominate other groups in a society
What is the Radical Theory of crime. Hint, based on Karl Marx. Capitalism is an economic system requiring people to compete against each other in the pursuit of material wealth.
Left Theorists Recognize that not only were he wealthy victimizing the working class, but working class were victimizing each other.
Left Theorists argue the concept of Relative Depravation which refers to.... an inequailty in resources and opportunities that are defined as unjust or unfair by the individual. Police must focus on protection of the working class.
The concept behind Peacemaking Criminology theory is... Crime is an expression of suffering. To reduce or eliminate crime. peoples suffering must be eliminated
Feminist Theory Focuses on women's experiences and seek to abolish mens control over women's labor and sexuality (patriarchy).
The concept of Postmodernism Argue that there is more than one interpretation of the law AND the Constitution. That interpretation is driven by the social context in which they arise.
What drug can we give sex offenders Depo-Provera
Created by: JeromeG