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Nutrition Exam 1

Chapter 1-6

Nutrition The science of food
Optimal Enough to support normal functions
Under nutrition Does not intake enough to support normal functions (subclinical and clinical deficiencies)
Over nutrition More nutrients than the body can support (obesity and toxicities)
Which nutrients provide energy Carbohydrates (fruit), proteins, alcohol and lipids
What are anthropometric measurements Measuring various aspects of the body (weight and height)
Chronic disease causes Diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, obesity
Stability of fat and water soluble vitamins in cooking Fat- high toxic in foods, Water- easily destroyed in cooking
Excretion of fat and water soluble vitamins Fat- easily stored in the body, Water- easily excreted in the body
Name the fat soluble vitamins Fat- A,D,E,K Water- B,C
Functions of water Lubricant, solvent, transportation medium and regulates body temperature
Calculate calories Multiply carbohydrates 4, proteins 9 and fat 4 by their physiological fuel value then add them together
Calorie The amount of energy in food
Factors that effect food choices Hunger versus appetite, flavor, culture, lifestyle, cost, marketing and knowledge
RDA and its goal Recommended Dietary Allowances, to prevent deficiency and chronic disease
Nutrient dense Assessing the nutritional quality of an individual food
Calorie reference for daily value Daily calorie intake
Dietary guidelines for Americans- why do we have them Americans are too high in calories, fat, saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, salt and alcohol. Many don't consume enough of the good stuff. Too much diabetes and obesity
Agency that regulates food labels FDA
What are UL's Highest number of nutrients you can take in
Servings required on food labels Specified by FDA, consistent among other foods
WIC program Special supplement program for women, infants and children
Guidelines for organic foods Biological pest management, composting, manure application and crop rotations
Cross contamination Cutting raw meat and vegetables on the same cutting board
Temperature danger zone 41 to 135 degrees Fahrenheit
Causes of staphylococcus 1 to 6 hours; diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, cramps
Causes of salmonella 12 to 72 hours; nausea, fever, cramps, headache
Bacteria in improper canned goods Clostridium botulinum
Hand washing requirements Wash hands for 20 sec with warm soapy water
Food left out- what are the guidelines Seal with a tight lid, keep refrigerated or frozen, keep hot foods hot, refrigerate leftovers immediately
Public water supply Safe
Bottles vs tap water safety Safe but expensive- boil tap water for ultimate safety
Pyloric sphincter Controls flow of stomach content into small intestine
Where most digestion occurs Small intestine
Peristalsis Contractions that push food is mixed with digestive secretions down the GI tract
Bile function Fat digestion
Enzymes Digest carbs, fat, protein
Digestion begins In the mouth and with amylase
Role of epiglottis Prevent food from lodging into trachea
Chyme Juice from digested food
Heartburn Caused by acid reflux
Pepsin Digests proteins
Segments of small intestine Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Treatment for constipation Fiber, fluid, exercise, and laxative
Causes of ulcers H. Pylori, alcohol, aspirin and smoking
Secretin Stimulates release of pancreatic bicarbonate
The 3 monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
The 3 disaccharides Maltose (glucose and glucose) Sucrose ( galactose and glucose) Lactose (glucose and fructose)
Functions of carbohydrates Provide energy, protein sparing, and prevents ketosis
Storage form of glucose Glycogen
Glucose is the primary fuel source for the body True
Carbohydrates= 4 Kcal/gram
Lactose intolerant Insufficiency of lactose
Causes of ketosis Type 1 diabetes, not enough insulin produced
Pancreas makes insulin True
Hypoglycemia Low blood glucose
Hyperglycemia High blood glucose
Diverticula Pouches that have extruded through the exterior wall of the large intestine
Food sources of fiber Fruits, grains, nuts
Triglyceride Major form of lipid in the body and in food
Functions of fat Energy, vitamin absorption and insulation
Essential fatty acids Aphla- linolenic acid and linolenic acid
How many servings of fish are needed each week for omega 3 intake 8 ounces a week
Food sources of saturated fatty acids Fat, pork, butter, coconut oil
Food sources of monounsaturated fatty acids Olive and peanut oil
Desirable total blood cholesterol level <200
Cholesterol Waxy lipid found in all body cells
Good (HDL) Picks up/recycles/disposes of cholesterol
Bad (LDL) Lipoprotein in the blood contains cholesterol
Risk factors for heart disease Can change blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and other diseases
Total fat intake recommendation from the American Heart Association 25%-35%of total calories
Created by: 1419727576